SCI 150 – Chemistry Flashcard

scientific method
observation
hypothesis
test hypothesis
theory
science
way of knowing and understanding the world
theory
integrates and unifies a body of data collected over time
must be falsifiable, but can never be proven
should have predictive power
can’t be overthrown by one discordant fact
can only be replaced by another theory that explains and integrates all data including discordant facts
law
generally accepted theory that should apply to all ranges of time and space
basic research
pure science
driven by person’s curiosity
way of understanding universe
applied research
goal is to solve a specific problem
related to the development of a technology
technology
practical application of scientific knowledge
why is clmate change hard to study
vast. many variables, hard to control
experimental design
must be observable
must be reproducable
methods must produce valid empirical data
hypothesis must be falsifiable
pseudoscience
claims to be science but it’s not
ie. astrology, urban legends
characteristics of pseudoscientific theories
can’t be tested in any way
have been tested and always failed
predict results which are contradictory to well established science
categories of pseudoscientific theories
dogma-coming down from higher source
mysticism- some force that affects you
false scientific claims to sell something
miraculous creation
God created the earth 5-50 thousand years ago
all science points away from this
emergent complexity
species gradually changed over time
intelligent design
life forms started small and gradually became more complex
some maker or creator
3 fundamental categories of measurement
length, mass, time
metric system
powers of 10
basic units are gram, meter, liter
add prefix
two types of numbers
exact- 12, 5, 7
inexact- any measurement 3.6 g, 22.4, 57 in
precision vs accuracy
precision- same place over and over
accuracy- average is close to right place
in science we want both
measuring properly
always estimate last digit
assumed to be + or – 1
buret
liquid delivery device, read 2 decimal places
atom
smallest unit of an element that can still be identified as that element
plum pudding model of atom (thomson)
electrons floating around in positively charged “pudding”
rutherford model of atom
most of mass at center of atom (nucleus)
electrons in orbit around nucleus
couldn’t explain line spectrum
bohr model of atom
electrons can change energy levels
electrons in orbit around nucleus
electrons only allowed in specific quantized orbits
atoms gain or lose energy through changing energy levels
proton
charge- +1
mass- 1 amu
location- nucleus
neutron
charge- 0
mass- 1 amu
location- nucleus
electron
charge- -1
mass- 0 amu
location- outside nucleus
atomic numbe
# of protons
mass number
# of protons + # of neutrons
isotopes
same atomic #, different mass #s
how do electrons fill quantum shells
first shell can hold 2 electrons
second shell can hold 8 electrons
valence shell- outermost shell
noble gases
atoms with 8 electrons in their valence shell
chemical bonding
atoms will react in such a way as to obtain 8 electrons in their valence shell
compound vs molecule
compound- more than one chemical species
molecule- 2 of the same element
ionic bonding
giving away of electrons
usually formed with elements on opposite side of pt
covalent bonding
sharing of electrons
tend to be nonmetals (SCHNOPSi)
electrolyte
conduct electricity
molecular weight
sum of atomic weight of each atom in the molecule
electronegativity
ability to attract electrons in a covalent bond
upper right corner of pt usually electronegative
polar covalent bond vs nonpolar
polar- electrons not shared evenly
nonpolar- shared evenly
why is polarity important
like dissolves like
ionization
conversion of a covalent bond into ions
molecules of the day
absorbs blue light/appears yellow
used in chicken feed to improve color
found in green leafy veggies and pumpkins
possibly decreases risk for macular degeneration
lutein
white odorless powder
college students use frequently
naturally occurring compound in coffee beans and cocoa beans
caffeine
approved by FDA in 1999
anti-viral neuraminidase inhibitor
history of production shortage due to difficulty obtaining raw materials
difficult synthesis limits production
used to treat influenza
marketed by Pioche as tamiflu
oseltamivir phosphate
similar to caffeine
found in chocolate, cola, and tea
food of the gods
can kill your dog
theobromine
occurs naturally in many plants
can be synthesized from fossil-based precursors
present in whiskey
probably have some in kitchen
often imitated
vanillin
irritant that produces burning
human tongue can detect at 1 part per 100,000
active ingredient in pepper spray
heat is measured in scoville units
capsaicin

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