SAT2 Chem: Organic and Enviro Flashcard

Alcohol
An O-H bonded to a carbon atom. Because of hydroxyl (-OH) group, alcohols are polar. Naming : They end in -ol.
Halides
A halogen bonded to a carbun atom. End in the -ide (in suffixes) or -o (in prefixes)
Carboxylic Acids
A carboxyl group (COOH) bonded to a carbon chain. H dissociates, making these molecules acidic. They end it -ic acid.
Amines
NH2 bonded to a carbon atom. Since it is similar to ammonia, it’s molecules are basic. It ends in -amine
Aldehydes
A carbonyl (C=O) group bonded to a terminal carbon. They end in aldehyde.
Ketones
A carbonyl (C=O) that is bonded to a nonterminal carbon
Ethers
An oxygen atom links to hydrocarbon chains. They end in ether
Esters
An ester is essentially a ketone and an ether put together. They end in -ate
Addition
A carbon-carbon double bond gets broken into a single bond with the addition of
Substitution
One atom or a group of atoms are replaced with another atom or group. This rarely happens.
Polymerization
Two smaller compounds called monomers are joined to form a third larger compound.
Cracking
A larger compound is broken down into smaller compounds
Oxidation
Combustion (CxHxOx + XO2– XCO2 + H2O
Esterification
Organic acid reacts with an alcohol to produce an ester and water.
Fermentation
An organic compounds in the absence of oxygen to produce an alcohol and carbon dioxide
Lipids
A long, branching chain made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are generally fats and oils. They are not soluable in water and instead aggregate and form droplets.
Triglycerides
A lipid made up of long fatty (hydrocarbon) chains, that is headed with glycerol.
Phospholids
The lipids that form cell walls
Carbohydrates
Also known as sugars, they form carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen chains (in a 1:2:1 ratio.) They are polymers made of sugar monomers.
Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose with just one unit of sugar.
Polysaccharides
Larger carbohydrates that store energy in plants and animals (cellulose).
Nucleic Acids
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, nucleic acids are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. They make up DNA and RNA
Proteins
Polymers made up of amino acid monomers which are made up of aminos and carboxyls.
Polypeptides
Chains of linked amino acids.
Enzymes
Biological catalysts which are proteins.
What is earth’s air made up of?
78% Nitrogen, 20% Oxygen, <1% Argon, <1% Other, Water Vapor (Variable)
Give the order of the regions in the earth’s atmosospher.
From inside to out, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.
Photodissociation
The process in which a bond is broken and absorbs a photon of light. In this case, O2 (g) + (gamma rays) — 2O(g), then from 0(g) + 02(g)–03
Chloroflourocarbons
A compound that reacts with light energy to form free chlorine which bonds with the oxygen, thus making it unable to turn into ozone
Acid rain
Rain that has an abnormal pH. The formula is S03(g)+ H20(l)–H2SO4
Carbon Monoxide
CO binds irreversibly to hemoglobin and makes it unable to transport oxygen.

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