s2m1 biochem – nutrition Flashcard

what percentage of total calories should come from carbs?

how many calories do you get from 1 g of carbs?

what’s the calculation for it based on the amount of calories consumed in a day?

60%

carbs give 4 cal/g

;

total amt. calories x 60%

then divide it by 4

= g CHO (grams of carbs)

what’s the protein sparing action of carbs?

what’s the consequence with low carbs?

why does the body make these?

with enough carbs around proteins aren’t broken down for energy.

low carbs -> body makes ketone bodies

cuz brain still needs sugar to function (lacks glucose storage)

carbs are a source of fiber

where is fiber found?

can the body digest it?

what’s its use then?

2 types of fiber? where in nature?

clinical use of high fiber diet?

plant cell walls

no

increase the bulk of feces ; rate of passage of material through intestines

soluble fiber – beans/fruits/oatmeal

insoluble – whole grain cereal

high fiber – helps constipation / colon disease, diabetes, hypertension

how many calories are in a gram of protein?

what’s the needed amt of protein per day?

what percentage of daily calorie intake should come from protein?

4 calories / gram

we need 0.8 g/Kg body mass per day

15% of calories should come from protein.

 

so take total calorie intake x 15% then divide by 4 = g protein needed.

 

how do we get the essential amino acids?

the body can’t make them

so we get em all from animal foods

(plants lack some)

how many calories should come from fat per day?

example of saturated / unsaturated fats

how many calories are contained per gram of fat?

functions of fat?

30%

saturated – egg yolk, beef fat, butter

unsat – oils

9 cals. per gram of fat

absorption of fatty Vitamins (A, D, E, K)

energy source

hormone synthesis, membrane structure

;

calculate the energy value of a meal with

30g carbs

20g protein

10g fat

(30×4) + (20×4) + (10×9) = 290 cals

;

a man weighs 60 kg

eats 2000 Kcal/day

exersizes heavy

will he loose/gain weight?

BMR: 60 x 1Kcal/kg x 24 hrs/day = 1440

TEF (thermic effect): calories consumed x 10% = 200

Activity: BMR x 50% = 720

Total = 1360

yes he’ll gain weight cuz his energy output is less than the amt calories consumed

 

sedentary lifestyle: 20%

light exersize: 30%

moderate: 40%

heavy: 50%

what micro-nutrient dificiency is assoc with the following:

scurvy 

beri-beri

pellagra

goiter, cretinism

rickets

pernicious anemia

scurvy – VitC

beri-beri – Thiamin

pellagra – Niacin

goiter, cretinism – iodine

rickets – VitD

pernicious anemia – Vit B12

which deficiency are the following populations at risk for:

pregnant women

older people

alcoholics

pregnant women – iron

older people – VitD

alcoholics – folate

which nutrients are needed in pregnant women?

which one also during lactation?

 

Vits A (very little) ,B,C, 

iron

calcium

folate

chromium

copper

iodine

zinc

magnesium

selenium

lactation – also needs biotin

function of VitC?

sources?

anitoxidant

collagen formation

increases non-heme iron absorption

cofactor for cytochrome p-450 enzymes

 

Diet source: citrus fruits, dark green veggies, tomatoes & potatoes

Calcium

sources?

milk, yogurt, cheese

OJ

brocoli

tofu

salmon

calcium deficiency effects?

rickets in children (along with VitD deficiency)

– delayed fontanelle closure

– bent bones

– enlargements at the ends of longbones

 

osteoperosis in adults

– altered posture, low bone mass

 

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