Russian Revolution Study Guide

Russia’s Social Structure
1) Monarch (czars)
2) Upper Nobles
3) Lesser Nobles (vassals)
4) Knights (high ranking soldiers)
5) Soldiers
6) Peasants (farmers) (serf)

Serfs
People who gave their land to a lord and offered their servitude in return for protection from the lord.

Crimean War
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia

Emancipation
The freeing of enslaved people

Tsar
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)

pogroms
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia

Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.

Nicholas II
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution

Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.

Port Arthur
a battle in the Chino-Japanese war (1894)

Bloody Sunday
A massacre of peaceful protesters at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905 that triggered a revolution that overturned absolute tsarist rule and made Russia into a conservative constitutional monarchy.

1905 Revolution
The revolution that began January 1905 with Bloody Sunday and ended with Nicholas II creating the October Manifesto.

Duma
Russian national legislature

The Proletariat
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.

abdicated
to step down from power

Provisional Government
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.

Bolsheviks
a group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia’s government in November 1917

Mensheviks
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.

V.I. Lenin
Leader of the Communist (Bolshevik) party who overthrew the Russian aristocracy and established a Communist government; leader of the U.S.S.R. (1917-1924).

March Revolution
As a result of this revolution the Romanov dynasty was removed from power after 300 years of autocratic rule and replaced with the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky

Soviets
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.

Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

“Bread, Land, Peace”
Lenin’s slogan used to gain public support, promised private property and an end to war, used false promises to gain power.

Reds and Whites
The Whites were only united by their hatred of the Reds, the Bolsheviks. 18 regional governments in 1918 were attacking the Reds but the Reds won this civil war.

Allied Intervention
a multi-national military expedition launched in 1918 during the Russian Civil War and World War I. The intervention involved fourteen nations and was conducted over a vast expanse of territory. The initial stated goals were to rescue the Czechoslovak Legion, With the end of the war in Europe the Allies, fearful of Bolshevism, openly intervened in the Russian Civil War giving support to the anti-Bolshevik forces.

The CHEKA
A new Red secret police. It replaced the old tsarist secret police. They aimed at nothing less than destruction of all those who opposed the new regime. Bourgeoisie were singled out who consider as “class enemies”.

Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.

Petrograd
a city in the European part of Russia

Kronstadt sailors
seamen who became disillusioned with killing of Bolsheviks; Trotsky leads Red Army to kill them

Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

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