Rural And Urban Orientation Sociology Essay Example
Rural And Urban Orientation Sociology Essay Example

Rural And Urban Orientation Sociology Essay Example

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  • Published: July 28, 2017
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Rural countries can be defined as those pieces of land that can lie outside metropolis centres and towns. They are largely marked by big farms, agricultural activity or big pieces of land that lie tick over without much developmental activities. An urban country on the other manus is an country marked with developed town centres and some times these towns have developed into metropoliss. In a bulk of instances, these towns were one time rural country, which through progresss in engineering, industrialisation and urbanisation have grown into what they now are. It hence goes without stating that both rural and urban centres have something that they can interact in common with. In a pursuit to develop into urban countries, rural countries need to borrow some development tips from the urban centres, while the urban centres on the other manus


would non last without the support from the rural countries for illustration in footings of agricultural merchandises that come from the rural countries to back up support therein. In add-on, motion of people, goods and resources from one point to another maintain these two diversified countries in close connexions ( Routledge, 2005 p. 67 ) .

Over the old ages, history has proved that any urban metropolis today ahs some rural beginning within it. It hence seems tentatively right to state that really small town is a possible metropolis in waiting. However, there are those particular scenarios that would wish to turn out this otherwise, particularly in the instance where the more developed countries within the same part, state or province seem to rule over the less developed alternatively of harmonizing the necessary support in accomplishing

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common end of going urbanised ( Brunn, and Jack, 2003 p. 26 ) .

In order to hold a closer analysis of the urban-rural interaction, this survey was divided into four subdivisions as follows: Introduction, literature reappraisal, findings and analysis and a decision.


Having a glance at what writers have to state on this subject helped to acquire a prevue on what was expected as an result of the survey. Harmonizing to Eveline Leeuwen in the book 'Urban-Rural interactions: Towns as focal point points in Rural Development, there are some cardinal factors that distinguish rural countries from urban centres, but these factors vary greatly from state to state and from part to part. What may be defined as urban in one state could be wholly rural in another and frailty versa. However, these are guidelines that could assist us to set up the mileposts that have been achieved into patterned advance from rural to urban ( Eveline, 2010 p. 123 )

One of the elements is ecology, which is fundamentally concerned with population denseness. The figure of people populating in a given topographic point will assist measure up the country as either rural or urban. It is a good known fact that urban countries are more populated than rural 1s. However, once more the figures could be dependent on the general population of that state as a whole. For illustration, in Switzerland, urban countries are those that have dwellers that total to 10,000 or more, while in Iceland, populations of 200 or more dwellers base on balls for urban. Such is the contrast in definition in different states. ( Eveline, 2010 p. 123 )


2nd component that is considered in the distinction of rural and urban centres is the economic component. This refers to the activities that are carried out with the purpose of bring forthing gross. In rural countries, much of the activities aimed at coevals of capital are agricultural-based, while in the urban countries they are non-agricultural. In the urban countries, there happens to be diversifies activities that calls for diversely-oriented labour force. This means hence that there is a batch of motion in and out of the towns as people either commute to work daily, or they move from the rural countries into the urban in hunt of employment. Those found to transpose between the rural and urban are those who find the life costs within the urban countries excessively high to bear ( Caroline, Anne, 2010 p. 54 ) .

The 3rd facet that differentiates the two is the societal facet which looks at how people conduct their day-to-day lives in footings of behaviour, the values they hold beloved every bit good as the channels they use for communicating. There is a broad array of factors that can be categorized into the societal facet of the urban and rural scenes, but they are hard to mensurate, therefore go forthing us with an tremendous undertaking of specifying what is urban and what is rural ( Caroline, Anne, 2010 p. 54 ) .

Urbanization and industrialisation as factors of transmutation from rural to urban

Urbanization in simple footings is the procedure through which rural small towns are easy but certainly transformed from remote, barbarian centres, into modernized, industrialized and connected centres. This is made possible by the increasing proportions of

people populating in the urban scenes. As people continue to increase in any given vicinity, in reverse proportions to the size of land, it becomes progressively hard for those people to turn their ain nutrient and starts depending on the countries considered as backwoodss to supply them with nutrient ( David and Cecilia, 2003 p. 96 )

Urbanization has become more and more closely associated with industrialisation, that the absence of one means a failing in the other. Cities have ever been seen as they ideal topographic points to turn up industries. As the industries continue to turn, they need to use more and more workers, and this facilitates the motion of people from the rural countries as they come into the metropoliss in hunt of occupations into the mills and industries ( David and Cecilia, 2003 p. 96 ) .

Merely as an illustration of how urbanization facilitates growing of rural countries, it has been cited in some studies that merely a mere 5 % of the entire population of the United States lived in the metropoliss around the twelvemonth 1800, but the figure rose to 50 % by 1920. This was the period around which America was undergoing urbanisation. The same was go oning in Europe. Today, approximately 80 % of the population lives in metropoliss and other urban centres. Yet this passage has been as a consequence of rural countries mutely but certainly transforming into urban scenes ( David and Cecilia, 2003 p. 96 ) .

Importance of urban centres to rural wellness

It is common cognition that wellness is an of import constituent in an person 's life or the life of the larger society

as a whole. Health does non simply refer to absence of disease, but refers to a balanced holistic balance and good being socially, physically, spiritually, physiologically and mentally. With this in head so, we need non state that the wellness status of the people in the rural set up is largely faced with many challenges and obstructions, compared to their urban opposite numbers, yet they need to maintain healthy in order top support bring forthing nutrient merchandises for the full state. In add-on, economic hindrances, societal differences and cultural disparities all com together to do the state of affairs worse, compounded with the fact that some rural countries are greatly stray and miss a acknowledgment from the legislators. Let us hold a expression at some of the wellness state of affairss around a bulk of rural countries ( American Sociological Society, 1976 p. 3 ) .

Out of the many wellness practicians around the universe, merely approximately 10 % work in the rural countries as compared to a whooping 70 % who work in urban apparatuss. This is great contrast sing that the rural population constitutes a one-fourth of the universe 's population ( Detlef, 2001 p. 102 ) .

The rural inhabitants barely of all time have employer-provided medical screen, unlike their opposite numbers in the urban countries. This means that entree to healthcare services proves to be a challenge for a bulk of them bearing in head that they merely earn meager incomes for their difficult labour and this small income must be put into meeting basic demands like nutrient ( Detlef, 2001 p. 102 ) .

Rural occupants are posed with the menace of decease

from unwilled hurts other than route accidents than their opposite numbers in the urban countries. This is because of the even the on the job conditions that they work under. For illustration they may acquire injured while working with farm tools and equipment, acquire infected with lockjaw and have no agencies of acquiring injected against it ( Sana, 2001 p. 13 ) .

More than 20 % of rural kids live in low poorness. As such, it is a great challenge for their parents to be able to harmonize them the much needed wellness service that other kids their ages and who live in the urban countries are exposed to. Rural occupants in general are poorer than the urbanites, with per capita income of $ 7,417 lower than that of urban inhabitants. ( Nina, Johnson and Lois, 2004 p. 106 )

Rural countries are marked with healthcare provide professional the universe over. Statisticss show that there are over 2,100 wellness professional deficit countries ( HPSAs ) in rural countries as compared to merely 900 countries in urban scenes ( Sana, 2001 p. 17 ) .

Drug maltreatment and baccy smoke is more rampant in rural countries than in urban countries among the young person. This is because, while urban young persons have other beginnings of amusement and legion activities that keep them busy, the rural young person have nil but idling and bad company to hang out with. Drug maltreatment is besides rampant among rural young person because the deficiency information on the dangers of so making, bearing in head that even the quality of instruction in these scenes is rather low ( Morton, 1996 p. 12 )


are 40 tooth doctors per 100,000 populations in rural scenes, compared to 60 tooth doctor per10, 000 in the urban scenes. This says that these rural inhabitants are non acquiring adequate facilitation for entree to proper dental attention. ( Morton, 1996 p. 12 )

Suicide rate among work forces and kids in rural countries is much higher than that of work forces, adult females and kids in urban countries. What this means is that we are losing work forces, who are breadwinners for households and kids who are the icons for a brighter tomorrow to suicide due to miss of intercession schemes ( Thomas, 1984 p. 134 ) .

Payments done to rural infirmaries are rather low, compared to the payments made in the urban infirmaries for tantamount wellness services. Although this spells cheaper service entree for the rural hapless, it besides means that the infirmaries are non acquiring adequate resources to maintain them traveling. As a affair of fact, over 450 infirmaries have shut down in the rural countries over the last 25 old ages ( Douglas, 1999 p. 57 ) .

These statistics and many more are merely a glance into what the rural folks are losing out in. What so is the function of the urban countries in griping up support for the rural countries every bit far as wellness attention is concerned?

To get down with, urban countries are the topographic points where physicians and other wellness professional are trained. As such, urban countries need to put in developing many forces and while planning is being done for the whole state, guarantee that a bulk of the forces are deployed into the rural countries to

offer these valuable services ( Douglas, 1999 p. 58 ) .

Urban countries are besides the topographic point where counsellors are trained. They need to be empowered to work in rural countries in order to leave life accomplishments on people so that drug maltreatment instances and self-destruction can cut down amicably ( Nina, 2004 p. 89 ) .

Fiscal resources, as we have seen in this paper, are channeled from the metropoliss into the rural countries. As such, strategic planning demands to be done, with the rural infirmaries in head in order to guarantee that they run swimmingly and that they ever have a smooth flow of resources like wellness forces and drugs ( Katharine, 1982 p. 16 )

Without stating much, if urban countries are to go on depending on rural countries for nutrient support, so the urban countries must manner up to guarantee that rural countries are working efficaciously for illustration by proviso of nucleus indispensable service, in which wellness is merely a tip of the iceberg. ( Katharine, 1982 p. 16 )

Chapter THREE - Findings AND ANALYSIS

Through the literature reappraisal, a few consequences were gathered and the undermentioned specific issues were raised.

Interactions between ancient urban and rural countries

As we have seen from the definition of urban and rural countries, it leaves us with no uncertainty that these two countries, despite of their diversenesss, rely on each other for achievement of some ends. For illustration, agricultural merchandises produced in the rural countries and which need further processing, must be transported into the industrialised urban countries for processing. Since there are no nutrient production activities traveling on in urban countries, rural countries need to supply them with

nutrient merchandises for nutriment. The economic benefits that are realized in the urban centres on the other manus are ploughed back into the rural countries, for illustration through household support by the people working in the urban countries ( Richard, 2008 p. 66 ) .

Case study One

Coming to a more specific analysis of the interaction between the urban and the rural, allow us hold a expression at the mediaeval metropolis scenes in the Roman universe. This is a instance survey that focuses on a symbiotic relationship between rural and urban scene. The differentiations between urban and rural in the ancient yearss were non simply a affair of the physical signifier, but besides an mentality through the administrative manus of administration. Harmonizing to a group of archaeologists working in Roman in the in-between age epoch, an country qualified as urban if it met the undermentioned conditions ; exhibited defences, had a well planned street system, had a heavy population, had a market, was lawfully independent in that it could regulate itself holistically, had a diversified economic base, was sacredly differentiated and had a judicial centre ( Michael, 1977 p. 174 ) .

At around that clip, rural countries in Rome were confronting some signifier of alterations in that, there was a demand for husbandmans to go multi-functional, in that they needed to switch focal point from little graduated table to big scale farm direction. This manner, they were able to follow comparatively modernised methodological analysiss of agriculture, therefore increasing productiveness. What this led to finally was a autonomy policy that brought an overrun of merchandises. Later on, the systems of farming had to alter from 'productivism '

to post 'productivism. ' This ensured that there was nutrient security, both for the rural and urban countries, hence relieving poorness. This means that when there is sustainable nutrient production for both rural and urban dwellers, trust on non-agricultural nutrient merchandises goes down, making a demand for the nutrient merchandises and hence increasing the income of the rural dwellers. Consequently, this translated to cut down rural-urban migration in hunt of occupations, guaranting that population distribution was balanced both in the metropolitan metropoliss and in the rural centres. At a closer analysis though, we can comfortably set up that the continued interactions between rural and urban developed a form of transmutation that gave rise to the metropoliss. To get down with, some urban centres as we know them today were simply pre-industrialized rural scenes that got transformed with the coming of industrialisation. Traveling from the phase of pre-industrialization, they became industrialised, finally geting the position of a to the full modernized, urbanised and industrialised metropolis scene. This mentality is every bit far as economic facets of rural-urban interactions are concerned ( Michael, 1977 p. 177 ) .

Coming to the societal facets of the interactions in the Roman universe, there was seen to be a really close relationship between the dwellers of the rural countries and those in the urban scene. This was proved by the changeless visiting forms by the urban dwellers into the rural countries to go to maps like one-year spiritual celebrations, rites and rites. On the other manus, people from the rural scenes would demo up in the urban countries to go to instruction, developing Sessionss and extension linkages, every bit good as

to entree wellness attention services. These signifiers of societal group interactions facilitated growing in footings of easing a displacement of focal point from interaction strictly for agricultural intents, to a more logical mentality on the kineticss of their ain demands necessary for growing and development ( Mahmoud, 2003 p. 98 ) .

Politically, The Hellenistic Roman urban universe shared a batch of involvements with the rural universe. For illustration, it is recorder by research workers that in the ancient medieval yearss, the two scene shared common administrative relationships that oversaw the smooth flow of authorities budgetary flows. Income generated by the cardinal authorities within the metropoliss was distributed to the rural countries through interrelated organisations that linked the countryside to the metropoliss. There was besides an facet of authorization blessing, intending that before execution of certain policies in the rural countries, there was demand to first acquire permission from the higher governments located in the metropoliss where policies were formulated and passed on as legal determination devising tools. Ideologically, Romans are known to hold shared common political orientations despite their differences in location. This was possible because as the urban countries became modernized, they strived to drag the rural countries along by guaranting that they got information through books, wireless, telecasting and advertisement ( Geyer, 2002 p. 65 ) .

Case study Two

In a contrasting instance survey, the rural-urban interaction in the Hellenistic Greek universe seems to be weak. The first illustration is drawn from the manner the Hellenistic male monarchs seemed to govern and the motivations that they had behind accretion of wealth. While most leaders would seek to increase wealth for the interest of their

topics, these male monarchs merely did non care about development of either rural or urban countries and their exclusive intent was to enrich themselves. Whatever wealth they could accumulate from the rural countries through irrigation or land renewal went into doing themselves the rich even more. To do affairs worse these leaders went to the extent of robbing temples, all in the quest to carry through their selfish desires. While this had one advantage in the sense that it led to the growing of the metropoliss in which the castles were located, it besides meant untold agony for the rural folks, who ne'er enjoyed the benefits of their work in footings of fiscal returns ( David, 2003 p. 34 ) .

This clearly shows that the urban-rural interactions were weak, what with the inconsiderateness of the Hellenistic male monarchs that cared less about development issues and alternatively were out to enrich themselves at the disbursal of their topics ( David, 2003 p. 34 ) .

Socialization in Italy, as yet another illustration of the disagreement between the rural-urban dealingss, was biased to a really big graduated table. How was this possible? It is recorded that the geographical and social-economic boundaries between the urban and the rural are rather noticeable. Culture between the two societal groups is extremely typical. Much of these disagreements were triggered by the fact that was a great division between the cardinal and southern Campania, and the northern and eastern parts. While one portion was exposed to a batch of Grecian influence and benefited from a heavy polis presence, the other part had really few Grecian contacts and hence remained with the old rural

cultural wonts. This meant that while the cardinal and southern countries received advantages of the Grecian presence like industrialisation and modernisation, the northern and eastern countries suffered loss and some kind of barrier to socialization. Hellenization comes out strongly, characterized by struggle between the Greeks and the Italians. This leads to a hardening of cultural boundaries, as a mark of strong solidarity of one group against 'invasion, by another. In this instance, the Italians as the 1s who are arising against alteration which could spell alterations in their supports in footings of transforming them from rural-hood to urbanism ( Eveline, 2010 p. 43 ) .

Case study Three

This instance survey focuses on the intense urban-rural interaction in the late antiquity universe. When we talk of the antiquity universe we are mentioning to the old ancient yearss on a more general note. By and large, it has been established that a bulk of the metropoliss as we know them today originated from some rural-like signifiers and merely grew into metropoliss through interactions with other more developed towns and metropoliss by an acceptance of urbanisation and modernisation techniques that they could non make without so, as a survey into the beginning of metropoliss has led us to believe. While adult male in the antediluvian yesteryear was accustomed to a life of runing for endurance, with clip he developed a acquisition accomplishment, which he developed and utilised to interact with others and with the Gods, finally organizing the earliest small town ( Eveline, 2010 p. 45 ) .

These early developments can be traced into the E in the likes of Mesopotamia, Nineveh and Babylon. Mumford, in his book 'The

City in History ' says that the garner, the library, the shop the drain every bit good as the bank, as they are known today, are a good contemplation of what the rural small towns looked similar and as such, the metropoliss or urban countries are a complete reproduction of the good old small towns. He goes on to propose that without the small town or the rural, there would non be the urban. In the Central Place Theory, he explains that the basic premises in the developmental phases of metropoliss are that resources are the same everyplace, intending that every small town or rural scene has the same possible as any other to develop into an urban scene. It is besides assumed that small towns consist of self-sufficing families that are non dependent on each other and that transit costs are equal regardless of the way to be taken and that the costs are besides relative to the distance to be covered ( Viswambhar, 2007 p. 73 ) .

With this in head so, we can see that there is great dependence on the rural countries for the growing and patterned advance of the urban scene, as opposed to instance analyze one that depicts a really mutualist relationship ( Viswambhar, 2007 p. 73 ) .

From the instance surveies above, it is clear that the two scenes, no affair how contrasting, can non last independently. There must be a signifier of relationship, whether symbiotic, parasitic or thwarted. In his book 'Rural-Urban Interaction in the underdeveloped universe ' Kenneth Lynch on page 17 Tells us that a batch states still depend on the rural countries for endurance

of their economic facets. He looked at the rural-urban dealingss every bit symbiotic as metropoliss on the other manus are depended on for fiscal services, information and channels of communicating every bit good as beginnings of non-agricultural merchandises ( Kenneth, 2005 p. 17 ) .

Extent of fluctuation in interactions between rural and urban scenes

Despite the above instance survey that seems to demo that there exists a strong relationship in the interaction between rural and urban scenes, the strength of the interaction varies from topographic point to topographic point and merely to mention an illustration to turn out this, in the Arabian Peninsula, urbanisation is quickly take charge of urban countries, while there is no agricultural alteration to boast about is taking topographic point in the rural countries ( Ravinder, pg 6 ) . This is because, as the urban countries continues to go urbanised and modernized, they besides became globalized, leting themselves to acquire assimilated into the civilization of other states, including an acceptance of eating wonts that led to importing of nutrients alternatively of back uping the local husbandmans by purchasing nutrient from them ( Ravinder, 2009 p. 6 ) .

Something else that affects the strength of interaction doing it weaker and about non-existence is the size of a state, harmonizing to Porter, 1980. A little sized state has more interactions between the urban and the rural and development of such a state is much easier and takes topographic point over a comparatively shorter period of clip. Such interactions are facilitated by the short distance that dwellers have to cover to and fro the urban countries and frailty versa ( Kenneth, 2005 p. 52


The paradox or rural-urban inequality

As earlier mentioned, the size of a state greatly determines how fast it becomes urbanised. Peoples populating off form metropolis centres find themselves being left behind in affairs to make with altering life styles like lodging manners, medical attention, vesture, vehicle ownership and a clump of many other things that define their societal, political and economic lives ( David, 2003 p. 18 ) .

Differences in the rural-urban interactions are besides triggered by differences in human capital. Most of the instances reported indicate that kids from the hapless rural scenes usually find it difficult to happen good paying employment when they are much older due to the fact that the degree of instruction they are exposed to is besides low quality. However, when they happen to be presented with a opportunity to entree high quality instruction, it goes without stating that they besides become feasible for the labour market and the quality of life goes high, the consequence that schooling has on labour markets becomes significantly irrelevant ( Brunn, 2003 p. 56 ) .

The paradox here brings itself out clearly because, while authoritiess advocate for high school registration particularly in the rural countries, they know merely excessively good that the quality of instruction does non fit that in the urban countries. This means that the kids and populations in the rural scenes remain in a 'rat race ' where in an effort to eliminate poorness they find themselves stuck in the same race twelvemonth in twelvemonth out. The consequence is particularly felt at the household degree as opposed to the community degree ( Herbert, 1982 p. 100 ) .

While it is expected

that where there are many booming markets people should non travel without employment, this is non the instance in many states, China, the universe 's strongest economic system included. Promotion is besides supposed to be on the footing of endowment and making, but those in the rural countries, no affair their makings, are non seen to benefits from the proposal of this theory. In fact, in some provinces, the spread between the rural folks and the urbanites is turning by the twenty-four hours, be it economically, socially or politically. How so can we anticipate rural favoritism to decrease if these are the booming conditions left, right and centre? ( Surinder, 2007 p. 102 ) .

Should we see the relationship between urban and rural entities as necessary and reciprocally -beneficial, or as exploitatory and one -sided?

The relationship between rural and urban countries can non be belittled or ignored, no affair how undistinguished the interaction may look to be. Gratuitous to state, both rural and urban countries constitute some functional elements that make life what it is in any given part. Cities, as we have seen, can non last entirely, neither can the countryside achieve much without some support from the metropoliss. Cities for illustration, need the human resource or labour that comes from the rural countries, while the rural countries on the other manus need the fiscal capital support that they derive from the metropoliss ( Ravinder, 2009 p. 1 ) .

Cities besides function as the market base for excess trade goods being produced in the rural countries. In instance of export of any excess, the metropoliss facilitate such agreements. What of the merchandises that come

form the rural autochthonal bungalow industries? They find their manner into the market, both local and international via the metropolis centres. The urban countries and metropoliss on the other manus provides a land on which policies and regulations that govern activities traveling on in the countryside are formulated ( Michael, 1977 p. 55 ) .

As such, the relationship between these two apparatuss is fundamentally a symbiotic one, save for a few cases where research has presented the relationship between the two as simply exploitatory, conveying out the urban countries as an exogenic factor that is out to work, subdue and take advantage of the autochthonal factor ( rural country ) ( Michael, 1977 p. 55 ) .

The alterations and fluctuations in the relationship between countryside and the metropoliss are simply a merchandise of the structural transmutations in society and non basically due to a witting procedure aimed at weakening the interactions. Over the old ages, a new construct, colonialism, has made the whole construct of rural-urban interaction even a small spot more complex that necessary. This is because, colonialism has brought out the facet that metropoliss are a major nexus between rural countries and the international markets, something that we can non overlook if planning for rural countries in relation to the remainder of the universe is to be done ( Richard, 2008 p. 66 ) .

When substructure is being developed in any given state, it goes without stating that the major purpose of so making is to hold a linkage between the two societal divides. However, when the linkage is non done in a mode that leaves no convergences, so there are opportunities that

neo-colonialism will develop between the rural and the urban, with the urban ruling the rural, as is the instance in the Hellenistic Greek ( Caroline, 2010 p. 56 ) .

Furthermore, there is a batch that authoritiess can make to beef up the relationship between urban scenes and the rural 1s. For illustration, if selling, transit and communications were strengthened, there would be no uncertainty that both the private and the public bureaus would be more than willing to function the rural countries and as such promote their growing. Planing hence calls for balanced representation of the rural stakeholder. For good development, there is demand to hold a socio-economic apprehension of the benefits that are likely to be derived from such developments, both for the rural and urban scenes. There is grounds that suggests that the hereafter of the rural-urban dealingss has a really strong potency for betterment as there is no 1 population that can last without the other. However, stakeholders must foremost take advantage of the chance for such development and poorness development issues ( Herbert, 1982 p. 107 ) .

It besides must be kept in head that urbanisation is a uninterrupted strong procedure that can non be inhibited, particularly in the underdeveloped states. Predictions show that in the following 25 old ages most of the universe 's population will be populating in the urban centres and since urbanisation can non travel beyond 100 % , the procedure will discontinue for most metropoliss of the universe ( Herbert, 1982 p. 111 ) .

With this in head so we can non afford to throw cautiousness to the air current and merely presume that the rural-urban

dealingss are exploitatory or nonreversible, salvage for the few unrepresentative instances within the Grecian universe.

Chapter Four - Decision

The relationship and extent of interaction between urban and rural centres is yet to be established. Nothing much can be said on whether there is an increased or a reduced interaction between the two for grounds mentioned below:

Rural folks and those in the urban countries have intensively different ways, and each of them is at their ain degree of civilisation. Comparative analysis of such distinguishable scenes becomes comparatively hard, bearing in head that the mileposts used for benchmarking the developmental advancement for urban scene are somewhat or even intensively different. For illustration, for urbanites, fiscal development means more to them than to rural folks, the ground being that urban inhabitants live all their lives harmonizing to their fiscal power. In rural countries on the other manus, life can be managed through a figure of attacks. For illustration, while in the metropolis 1 might kip hungry if they have no money for nutrient, in the rural country one will ne'er travel hungry with neighbours about, non to advert huge Fieldss of land that have harvests cultivated on them ( Mahmoud, 2003 p. 114 ) .

The issue or urban-rural interactions, harmonizing to the literature reappraisal, has non received much attending from people concerned with the survey, chiefly geographers. Furthermore, much of the literature available on this subject concentrates excessively much on the differences between urban and rural scenes, instead that the similarities that draw them together. There is now a turning demand to switch focal point and give the connexions between rural countries and the urban 1s the attending that

they deserve.

Some other surveies tend to be biased, in that alternatively of conveying out the symbiotic relationship that exists between the metropoliss and the countryside, they tend to stress the laterality that is characteristic of many urban centres over their topics which are the rural countries. However, this is non the cosmopolitan instance because non all urban centres dominate over the rural 1s, as is evidenced from the Roman instance survey above.

Developmental issues for urban and rural countries tend to be treated otherwise, therefore losing the benchmark with which comparings can be made refering the mileposts achieved by each of them developmentally. When developmental programs are being made for urban countries, most of them do non convey into consideration tantamount undertakings that can be brought on board to profit the rural countries as good ( Richard, 2008 p. 106 ) .

Sociologists and a figure of other research workers have confined themselves so much to developmental issues and factors that have to make with the rural countries, at the disbursal of urban countries. Be it that they studied urban countries every bit good, so there would be a better method of explicating linkages between other broader societal, political and economic systems.

Last, there are no surveies that have comprehensively tried to grok the strength of rural-urban dealingss. This nevertheless does non interpret into intending that we should fling the rural-urban interactions or overlook their importance, for in many undocumented instances, these two facets of development and modernisation can non be divorced from each other.

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