Roles of Management – POLC

What are the four key roles of management?
Planning, Organising, Leading, Controlling
What is planning?
Planning is a formalized procedure to produce a set of integrated systems of decisions ie making a series of decisions to achieve the organizational objectives/goals
What are the three levels of planning?
Strategic Planning, Tactical Planning, Operational Planning
What is strategic planning?
Long-term 2-5 years planning undertaken by senior management to achieve corporate objectives
What is tactical planning?
Medium term – usually 1-2 years undertaken by middle management to assist in implementing strategic decisions egs include responding to changes internal and external, the allocation of resources in order to achieve objectives
What is operational planning?
Short term, usually daily, monthly to 1 year undertaken by lower level supervisors and managers
What is organising?
Organising is the coordination of various human and physical activities of an organization.
It is a multistep process.
What is the multi-step process that is involved in organizing?
1.Determine work to be done to obtain objectives
2.Divide workload into activities that can be performed logically and comfortably by individuals or groups
3.Combine or aggregate tasks in a logical and efficient manner
4.Set up departments to coordinate the work organisation members and ensure that departments are mindful of organisations objectives
5.Monitor effectiveness of the organisation
What are the three types of authority found in organizing?
Line authority – command authority – the manager has the right to demand, make decisions and commit the organisation to action
Staff authority – advisory authority – in the form of advice or recommendations
Functional Authority – right to direct or control special activities that are under other managers control ie HR creating workplace relations policy
What is leading/leadership?
Leading involves influencing others towards the attainment of organizational objectives.
What characteristics do good leaders have?
Generally good leaders are considered to have
Intelligence and knowledge, social maturity, internal motivation and achievement, self confidence, good communication skills, interpersonal skills, take responsibility seriously, make decisions that are fair and just
What are the sources of leadership?
Legitimate power
Expert power
Reward power
Coercive power
Referent power
What is controlling in the POLC cycle?
Controlling is directly related to planning and ensures processes are being implemented appropriately and alerts managers to deviations from the plan so corrective actions can be taken.
What are the four basic steps in the control process?
The 4 basic steps are
1. Setting a standard, target or objective
2. Measuring performance
3. Identifying and investigating deviations
4. Making changes where necessary
What are the different types of control put in place to achieve a continuous flow between measuring, comparing and action in the control process?
Financial – ie budgets, performance measured against output
Establishing performance standards – relevant standards ie environmental, safety, quality
Time controls – numbers per day in regards production
Cost controls – setting standards for eg staff absences, workplace accidents
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