Role Of Computers
Computers are electronic devices with the following attributes; they are programmable in nature, they can store data as well as responding to specific instructions. There are various types of computers and can be classified according to size and power. Examples are the personal computers, workstation and minicomputers. Role of Computers Today, computers have a wide range of uses and offer a variety of functions and services the have affected all aspects of development. There are various roles played by computers.
This can be discussed as under education, banking and other business enterprises, space astronomy, communication, electro chemistry among others. In learning institutions, computers offer a wide range of assistance to students as they help students to master specific skills such as typing skills, enables them acquire order thinking skills hence productive learning. This can be seen through the use of programming languages to solve problems. The use of computers in schools has resulted into improved knowledge tapping upto the unreached potentials.
This has also helped to budge gaps, exchange ideas; expand curriculum as well as helping in the delivery of education almost anywhere. This has further led to the integration of the schools into the global community. Computers also play a crucial role
In the case of global marketing, computers have played a huge role in the advertisement of goods and services produced in different countries hence competent marketing as the chain of production is completed. Trade has been enhanced leading to advanced economies. In the space world, computers aid astronomers for observational purposes namely: computers guide telescopes, mercury radiation and analyse data collected with telescopes. Computers also aid theoretical astronomeic to produce mathematical model or the history of the star (Library. hinkquest. org/c0070g1/uses. htm).
Communications has been made more effective as a result of the use of computer. This has led to the enhancement of relationship among individuals and entities. Computers role in communication can be viewed as under the use of electronic mail, Internet, chart rooms, video conferencing, personal websites and the Internet where it is easier to publish and find information. Computers have also enhanced teaching in schools as a media of communication among students.
For instance, Digital media are very influential for the students to acquire knowledge in their respective disciplines in a more enjoyable manner. The same applies to the distance – learning programs. Computers also play a vital role in electrochemistry. This can be seen through sample preparation, experimental control, and preparation of data for interpretation, model building, and interpretation, tactical and strategic decision making (Ralph, 2002, p. 151). Computers also play a vital role in this era of information.
One researcher Rabin Jack has examined this role: And in the information era, the interface of electronic circuitry with digitized sequential streams of data has expanded the analytic power of mankind to allow the achievement of tasks previously impossible, from statistical analysis of mind-numbing masses of information to efficient prosections of future outcomes. Nowhere in the government has the computerization of work had a greater impact than in the era of finance and budgeting, an area blessed and beset with huge amounts of numeric information (Rabin, 1992, p. 57).
Despite these roles played by computers in the society, they have also had some negative consequences such as the common computer fraud schemes developed through the Internet and they have affected the health of persons’ using them; and finally the widespread computer addiction. People have resulted to changing their lifestyles and social values through crimes and moral degradation. The overuse of computers have resulted to health risks namely inefficiencies and visual symptoms.
Another negative implication that computers have generated is the virus problem. This is a major threat to technology. The virus may exhibit itself in the form of an attractive title for the purpose of gaining attention to the intended recipient. This is a common problem that computer users experience. History of Computers Modern computers can be traced back as far as the primitive stages of development; these computers have developed at a faster pace as a result of technological change. There have been various inventions in the history of computers.
Amongst the early machine were the abacus-a counting machine and the papyrus that helped early man to record language and numbers. During the 1600’s, Blase Pascal pioneered the development of the first mechanical used for addition but this was a build up to works of Hero of Alexandria (2AD) (http://www. lecture. eingang. org). This machine could offer a substantial improvement over manual calculations. A major drawback to the above mentioned machine was the fact that, no one else could repair the machine (http://www. lecture. eingang. org/).
In 1812, Charles Babbage developed a prototype difference engine that was based on steam-power and automation. Again in 1833, Babbage came up with an “analytical engine” whose memory allowed it store a thousand numbers as well as synthesizes 50 decimal places words (http://www. lecture. eingang. org/). Herman Hollerith developed an automated device, able to interpret census information from a punched out card. This dramatically reduced reading and computing errors. Herman’s invention was so successful that, he eventually formed international Business Machine (IBM).
However, the machine was strictly limited to tabulation. (http://www. lecture. eingang. org/). In 1945, John run Neuman introduced the run Neuman machine that had the capability of storing data and programme in the same space. Other inventions include the transistor in 1947 by William Shockley and the integrated circuit that was developed in 1958 by Jack St. Clair. The Intel Company developed the first integrated circuit in 1971, which had a capability of processing funs buts of data at a time (http://www. ecture. eingang. org/).
Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975 developed a Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code also known as BASIC that was designed to provide an interactive easy method for upcoming computer scientists. This was a programming language and it is through its sale that Microsoft was born. Other programming languages introduced later are the FORTRAN developed by IBM, ALGOL— algorithmic and the CABOL (Common Business oriented Language) developed in 1960. (http://www. lecture. eingang. org/).
Gates and Allen developed an Atlair emulator and the Basic interpreter in the Microsoft company was registered on November 26, 1976 with the USPTO and it became independent of MITS (Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) in the late 1976 as a programming language company under Bill Gates and in the early 1980’s it introduced its own version of the graphical user interface (GUI) and hence windows was released. The TRS – 80 was introduced in 1977 carrying a memory capacity of 64,000 characters and the disk drive for storing data and programs (http://www. lecture. eingang. org/). Conclusion
All of the above computer inventions can be classified under various computers generations. For this work, they are classified into five categories. The first generation of computer falls in the years 1940-56. These types of computers used vacuum tubes for avails and magnetic drums for memory. These computers were very expensive due to higher levels of electricity usage and heat. They used machine languages in their operations solving one problem at a time. Punched cards and printouts were used both input and output processes respectively. (www. webopedia. com/Didyouknow/Handware-Software/2002/Five Generations. sp). The second generation of computers (1956-1963) mainly used the transistors.
They were more superior to the earlier vacuum tubes and moreover, their language was symbolic that allowed specification of instructions in words. (www. webopedia. com/Didyouknow/Haedware-software/2002/. /Five Gen. asp) In the third generation, was the development of integrated circuits and transistors which were placed on silicon chips and as a result, this saw the increase in computer speed and their efficiency (www. webspedia. com/Didyouknow/Hardware-software/2002/FiveGenerations. asp).
In addition, the fourth generation (1971-present) saw the development of microprocessors whereby thousands of integrated circuits were built on a single silicon chip. There was also the development of the graphical use interface and the mouse. Finally, the fifth generation is the present generation and beyond and it is generally known to use artificial intelligence and moreover it is still in the process of changing. The voice recognition and parallel processing are some of the applications used under this generation (www. webopedia. com/Didyouknow/Handware-Software/2002/FiveGenerations. asp).