Over the past several decades, many organizations have realized the great benefits from utilizing consultants not only for strategic planning but for reengineering core processes and administering various corporate functions. The main role of a consultant is to lend his or her expertise to an organization, in this case the Pegasus firm, which the organization is unable to provide on its own. A consultant aims at the process, content, or both, in order to help the organization attain its targets.
According to the exact words of Garmston and Wellman (1999, pp. 27-28), ‘to be effective in this role, the consultant must be trusted by the group and keep the desired outcomes foremost in mind’. Stroh and Johnson (2006) also relates that a consultant can either be someone who advises another person or organization on the desirability of taking some action, or someone who assists the person or organization in making a decision and then assists in planning or implementing action as determined by the person or the organization.
However, although a consultant may influence decision making by virtue of his or her knowledge or expertise, the individual usually has little power or authority to make changes, the client retaining the ultimate authority over whether and which changes to implement. Basically, internal consultants are regular employees of the company, while external consultants work with the client company on a temporary assignment.
In comparison, external consultants typically spend relatively short periods of time at client companies, unlike internal consultants who work full-time. The role of the internal consultant, according to Lancaster (2005), can be viewed as ‘in-sourcing’ of the duties that were historically entrusted to external consultants: strategy development, process redesign, and so forth. The internal consultant performs the same function but is differentiated by his or her commitments to the organization and the focus on one client.