Rock Study Guide

igneous
What kind of rock forms when molten rock cools & hardens?

sedimentary
What kind of rock forms when broken down pieces of rock settle to the bottom of water & get pressed and cemented together?

metamorphic
What kind of rock forms when existing rock is changed deep inside earth by extreme heat & pressure?

melted
What does molten mean?

magma
molten rock beneath the surface

lava
molten rock that pours onto the surface

quickly
How does lava cool?

slowly
How does magma cool?

large cools slowly?
What size crystals form when magma

small
What size crystals form when lava cools quickly?

glassy
What word describes the texture of a rock that formed when lava cools immediately with no visible grains?

intrusive & extrusive
2 types of igneous rocks

extrusive
igneous rocks that form from lava

intrusive
igneous rocks that form from magma

clastic, chemical, & organic
3 types of sedimentary rock

organic
kind of sedimentary rocks that form where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers

clastic
kind of sedimentary rocks formed from broken pieces of rock fragments that are squeezed together

sediments
small, broken down solid particles of material from rocks or organisms which have been moved by water, wind, or ice

weathering
process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces

erosion
process that moves fragments of rock by water, wind, or ice

rock cycle
a series of processes on Earth’s surface & interior that slowly changes one kind of rock into another

by how they form
How are rocks grouped or classified?

“changed form”
what the word metamorphic means

“formed by fire”
what the word igneous means

“to settle”
what the word sedimentary means

foliated & nonfoliated
2 types of metamorphic rock

layers in metamorphic rock
What does foliated mean?

the continuous changing of rock from one type to another
What does the rock cycle explain?

sedimentary
What type of rocks involve cementation & compaction in their formation?

igneous
What type of rocks involve melting, cooling, & solidifying in their formation?

sedimentary
What type of rocks involve weathering, erosion, & deposition in their formation?

marble, gneiss, & slate
3 examples of metamorphic rocks

granite, basalt, & obsidian
3 examples of igneous rocks

sandstone, limestone, & coal
3 examples of sedimentary rocks

changing
What are rocks always doing?

minerals & other materials
What are rocks made of?

deep underground
Where do metamorphic rocks form?

igneous
What kind of rock forms from the cooling of magma below the surface or lava at the surface?

because we use them for so many things
Why are rocks an important resource to society?

sedimentary
Which type of rock forms in layers?

the heat of the mantle deep underground
Where does the heat come from that changes a rock into a metamorphic rock?

compaction
the process that presses together layers of sediment

true
True or false? Any type of rock can change into any other type of rock.

sedimentary
What kind of rock forms from material that settles on the ocean floor?

cementation
the process that glues particles into sedimentary rock

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