Rhetoric

Who was the first rhetor
Corax
what are the three perspective definitions of rhetoric
single definition, (Bryant)
systems definition(Ehringer)
evolutionary definition(golden)
what is the neosphere
culmulative thought of mankind (golden)
what is noetic
human process of perceiving and understanding
What was Ong’s major point
orality and literacy create different kinds of human consciousness
what are the benefits of literature
time, audience, organization, knowledge
creates a permanent record
allows leisurely consultation of text facilitating complex points
invites inspection through the eye
modern writers aware of appearance on page use lots of synonyms
what are the traits of orality
performance nature of story makes its somewhat ritualistic
orators develop their point incrementally and with repetition
invites inspection through the ear
who was Luria
looked at differences between oral societies and literate:
oral thinkers must experience something personally to understand it
literate thinkers are acclimatized to abstract, impersonal concepts and using the imagination to fill in blanks.
what is proto rhetoric?
a cultures store of orally remembered wisdom
with reference to rhetoric what is the difference between cultures with a hierarchy vs. cultures with a democracy?
hierarchal systems aim to have well mannered speakers who know their place
democratic systems aim to give the speaker the tools to advance socially because advancement is possible in this system.
what is the translation for rhetoric
it comes from the Geek and means speaker craft
what was the Agora
the public assembly for all of Athens. women were not permitted to speak in the Agora.
who invented and what is “Topoi”
Aristotle and it is an aid to memory which translates to mean places. lays out a list of 28 verbal categories which may be useful to prompt or recall information or arguments.
who were the Sophists
teachers of rhetoric who made rhetoric available to the developing middle class of Greece…for a price. hated by plato!
what is premodernism
life where people evolve around the natural world
what is the difference between the modern world and premodernism?
peoples needs are directly met through interaction with nature in premodernistic worlds, in modernistic cities etc peoples needs are met though interactions with other people.
what is the one best way
Frederick Winslow’s scientific management system. find the one best way to do something in the name of efficiency
which system dominated the british and Continental rhetoric systems
Hugh Blair’s book “lectures on rhetoric” was the foundation for the BELLETRISTIC and BELLE LETTRES
what does epistemological mean and why is it important to rhetoric
means we learn via our five sense, important b/c during the 1900’s society shifted away from the religious to the scientific. this scientific view of how we interpret the world also applied to rhetoric. epistemological-psychological system of rhetoric.
what are the characteristics of postmodern rhetotic
multiculturism
technology
what is second orality?
Ong’s theory that social media in our postmodern world is creating a new orality.
How did Corax invent rhetoric
he devised a system of rules for arranging and arguing a legal case…when Syracuse tyranny was replaced by a democracy. land disputes were high.
what was the citizen of Athens trained to be?
generalist, to do many things well
what does Sophos mean
knowledge
what does arête mean
Sophist courses were designed to teach the arête that is the ability, knowledge and attitude necessary to participate in domestic, social and political life
how were the sophists and Plato apart
The sophists taught practical knowledge which ran counterpart to Plato who believed rhetoric should be used to seek out higher abstract truths. They also charged money for their services allowing education to the masses not just those with birthright–Plato was a aristocrat.
what did Philip of Macedonia achieve?
he united all the separate tribes of Greece into one unified Pan hellistic society.
what was stoicism
named after the porch where Zeno and his followers sat and deliberated. Stoicism advocated the discovery of the natural order to everything and then the key to happiness being to capitulate to it.
who were the epicurians
they defined pleasure as not being indulgent or sexual rather it is the ABSENSE of pain from the body.
define forensic rhetoric
it happened in the past
define deliberative rhetoric
considering the future…political debate
define epiditic rhetoric
present…praise or blame of an individual or event
what are the five elements to roman rhetoric
inventio
dispositio
elocutio
memoria
pronunciatio
what is inventio
coming up with ideas to argue debate
what is dispositio
the way you decide to organize the ideas you had in the invention stage
what is elocutio
the speakers style, his choice of words, rhetoric devices used to present
what is memoria
tricks which can be used to memorize all of your argument such as quintillians memory palace or Aristotle’s topoi
what is pronuntiatio
the speaker inflection of voice and body language at delivery
who was aeschines
a professional actor of considerable ability who challenged Demonsthenes
who was demonsthenes
considered to be the worlds greatest orator. didn’t start off this way. had a lisp, shortness of breath, awkward movement. but he overcame it all through perseverance.
what was the debate between demonsthenes and aeschines
it was recommended that demonsthenes be awarded a golden crown by the state for his services to the state. aeschines objected on grounds that demonsthenes had not always had Athens best interests at heart. he had urged citizens to oppose Philip of Macedonia–when they did they were soundly defeated. demonsthenes compared his political career to that of Athenian ancestors knowing that in order to then decredit him aeschines would have to discredit the ancestors.
what role did women generally play in greek politics
none, there domain was considered to be the household.
who was Aspagia
an accomplished artisan (a companion to education wives and children of rich folk) consequently she did not have to play the role of housewife AND attended many symposiums and political debates. Pericles(ruler of Athens) fell in love with her.
She was a great friend of Socrates.
It has been suggested that she wrote pericles great speeches including Funeral oration
considered to be the first female rhetorician
who was Pryne
A beautiful woman and said to be the inspiration for the painting Aphrodite rising from the sea.
put on trial for not honoring the gods sanctioned by the government
bared her breast at trail…considered then to be a symbol of maternity and was freed.
what is enargia
anything such as a display (see Pryne) or a diagram that is VISUALLY powerful
what are Plato’s two major rhetorical dialogues?
the georgias(a study in false rhetoric) and the Phaedrus(a study in true rhetoric)
what are the salient points in Plato’s Georgias?
* Socrates seeks the true definition of rhetoric, attempting to pinpoint the essence of rhetoric and unveil the flaws of the sophistic oratory popular in Athens at this time.

*The art of persuasion was widely considered necessary for political and legal advantage in classical Athens, and rhetoricians promoted themselves as teachers of this fundamental skill.

*Some, like Gorgias, were foreigners attracted to Athens because of its reputation for intellectual and cultural sophistication. Socrates argues that philosophy is an art, whereas rhetoric is merely a knack. (see comparison to cookery)

*To Socrates, most rhetoric in practice is merely flattery. In order to use rhetoric for good, rhetoric cannot exist alone; it must depend on philosophy to guide its morality.

Socrates, therefore, believes that morality is not inherent in rhetoric and that without philosophy, rhetoric is simply used to persuade for personal gain. Socrates suggests that he is one of the few (but not only) Athenians to practice true politics.

what are the salient points in Plato’s Phaedrus?
ostensibly about the topic of love, the discussion in the dialogue revolves around the art of rhetoric and how it should be practiced. Three models of rhetoric are compared to three lovers:

Lysia’s non lover= the rhetor who does not move us, purposefully avoids emotional language in favor of objectivity and neutral unbiased language.

evil lover=the rhetor who uses language to enslave and deceive

Noble lover= the rhetor who uses language altruistically and to seek out Platos three levels of truth.

What are Plato’s three levels of truth?
The Table :
*highest level of truth = the table as envisioned by the Gods

*Second level of truth = the actual, physical table as created by the carpenter

*third level of truth = the table portrayed by the artist

What is the name of Plato’s dialogue which describes how to physically perform for speeches?
The Cratylus
What does Plato say about audience analysis and adaptation
Plato did not deal with individuals or groups but instead aimed at the “philosophical audience”

factors included: Age, Gender, locale
Gender=men and women are similar of kind but not of degree.
young men are immature and do not heed the wisdom of their elders
where one lives is important as to how they view the world.

What was the Apology?
Plato wrote this about Socrates defence against charges he was corrupting the youth of Athens.

The charges were brought by Meletus.

what do john Dewey and Plato have in common?
Dewey’s scientific method bears a striking resemblance to Plato’s dialectic method:
identify difficulty
describe difficulty
identify solutions
evaluate solutions
choose best solution
what is Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric?
the art of finding the most available means of persuasion in any given case.
what was Aristotle’s book called and why is it important?
Rhetoric it is the single most important book on rhetoric ever written
what are artistic proofs
these are proofs which come from inside the writer: ethos, pathos and logos
what are inartistic proofs?
proofs which come from outside of the writer i.e. research
deductive vs inductive reasoning
deductive: Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the general to the specific.

inductive: A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.

why did Aristotle consider rhetoric useful?
to uphold truth and justice and counteract their opposites

to be able to teach to a popular audience not just a specific set of people.

to be able to analyze both sides of a question in order to know both sides arguments and find the best means of persuasion.

to enable one to defend oneself

what is an enthymeme
A three pronged logical argument
major premise———–all men die
minor premise———–I am a man
conclusion—————-therefore someday I will die
what are the premises of the enthymeme?
probability arguments that are generally true and contain an element of cause
signs (fallible and infallible) every example is scientifically verifiable vs jumping to a conclusion
examples pointing to previous examples
what are the two kinds of enthymeme?
demonstrative = to prove a premise
refutative=to refute a premise
what is a maxim?
a shortened enthymeme..a general truth..ie women are poor drivers
how many valid lines of argument are there and how many illegitimate lines of enthymeme?
28 legitimate and 9 illigitamate
what is ethos?
how the audience interacts with the speaker..do they consider him truthful, intelligent and altruistic all of which elevate his testimony. Considered the most powerful of the three artistic proofs according to Aristotle
what is pathos
emotional appeals to the audience. Aristotle considered emotion in opposite pairs ie friendship and enmity he defined the state of mind for each emotion.
what is logos?
the use of logic in persuasion.
what is epideictic discourse mostly composed of?
ethos! our general opinion of a person, place or thing when applying praise or blame
what are Plato’s four cardinal virtues?
courage
temperance
wisdom
justice
what did Aristotle say about criminal acts?
are either voluntary or involuntary and caused by factors such as chance, nature, reason or passion
how did Aristotle organize his speeches?
proem or introduction
statement
argument
conclusion
in terms of audience analyses how did Plato and Aristotle differ?
plato believed that rhetoric would enable a speaker to reach all in the audience at an individual level…Aristotle believed that the speaker should aim his speech at a given group type. The group is not an individual.
according to Aristotle what was the key to speaking to any given group?
All men seek happiness…try and give it to them
what was aristotles Golden mean?
The target age group with which to aim your rhetoric and speech. Middle age! this way you loosely also appeal to those on either side of it..young and old but most importantly Aristotle considered it the perfect time of life.
what was the school called which Isocrates founded?
The lyceum
why did Isocrates teach?
though he always had an interest in rhetoric he, himself was not a good speaker thus he founded a school were he could teach instead.
what are Isocrates three learning essentials
natural ability
training
practice
How was Isocrates different from his contemporary Plato?
Isocrates had no interest in searching for any knowledge unrelated to human existence (Plato’s higher truths) Isocrates was a pragmatist.
did Isocrates advocate pan hellenism
yes
what was unique about Isocrates methods of education?
he did not claim to have all the answers often he would send his students out to listen to others in the field.
what book did Isocrates write?
Against the Sophists. Ironic as he charged 200 to students to access his school
what is declamation
a way to teach critical thinking and devlop oratory skills. an oral problem requiring a solution
what is chiasmus
A figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. It is a rhetorical in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms. (ex. …ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.)
what did quintillion believe?
that the end justified the means
what book did cicero write
de oratore
what book did quintillian write?
institution of oratory
what are the five canons of Cicero?
inventio
dispositio
elocutio
memoria
pronuncio
what are Cicero’s three styles of elocution
plain = to prove
middle = to please
grand = to persuade
who was the most famous roman orator
cicero
what is the Roman equivalent of logos
stasis
what does stasis consist of
fact
definition
quality
what’s to be done
what places did quintillian point to- to find arguments for a case
cause
place
time
manner
means
did quintillian believe that virtue and vileness can exist in the same person
no
did quintillian believe that you can learn to be a good man
yes
who was simonides?
the first to teach the mental discipline of memory. after a building collapsed killing all within beyond identification (preventing burial) he was able to identify everyone because he remembered where they all sat.
what did Cicero say about pathos?
that the speaker who uses pathos to strengthen logos is more successful then he who doesn’t. non-emotional speech produces yawning
quintillian was the first rhetor to…?
provide an intensive study on gestures and facial expressions.
what two kinds of rhetoric did Cicero advocate?
discourse and conversation.
what did cicero say to avoid at all costs in conversation?
playing the role of braggadocio (braggart)
in classic rhetoric the moral philosophical view was advocated by…?
Plato
in classic rhetoric the scientific philosophical view was advocated by…?
Aristotle
in classic rhetoric the education philosophical view was advocated by…?
Isocrates, quintillian and Cicero
when did the second sophistic movement occur?
between the classical and British periods of rhetoric
what were the two factors which contributed to the second sophistic?
The fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity
what was the defining quality of rhetoric during the second sophistic?
how something was said was more important than what was said. with the fall of democracy people were afraid of offended rulers.
who was Hermogenes?
second sophist rhetor who wrote On Types Of Style
who was Longinus?
wrote On The Sublime which is recognized as the major work during the second sophist.
what five different sources did Longinus state?
talent
passion
(these first two are innate)
handling of figures
noble phraseology
spirited composition
what is the conflict between rhetoric and Christianity?
rhetoric deals with probability and Christianity deals with truth.
what are the four types of Christian oratory?
Apologies
polemics
sermons
panegyrical sermons
who were the apologists?
early Christians defending their faith against Romans who believed in the old Gods. Justin was the most famous example.
who were the polemics?
as the Christian faith grew it began to splinter off into different groups of Christians polemics tried to keep everyone true to the original faith.
what are sermons?
an address/ form of preaching based on scripture and delivered during the service
what are panegyrical sermons?
a form of sermon bordering on rhetorical excess.
who challenged the second sophistic?
st. Augustine
how did st Augustine justify the reintroduction of rhetoric into Christianity?
he said if evil can use it and persuade people o lose track of the true faith then Christians should also use it as a tool to bring people back.
what book did st Augustine write?
de doctrina christiana….on Christian doctrine
what is exegesis?
critical explanation or interpretation of a text
what did Augustine say about sophistry…how something is said is more important than subject matter.
he didn’t his silence and contempt said more than he ever could.
when did letter writing begin as a form of rhetoric?
the middle ages
what different parts did rhetoric in the middle ages advise letters to have
salutation
exordium (secure the good will of reader)
narration
petition (the request being made)
conclusio
why was the renaissance important to rhetoric
only a few texts were available before this but now the entire canon of Greek and roman rhetorical texts were translated and made available
what did Erasmus write
de copia
who was peter ramus
Ramos redefined rhetoric as the study of style of delivery. he relocated logic into the field of philosophy
what book did Peter Ramos write?
Dialectique
who was Christina de Pizan?
15th century female rhetorician. widowed at 25 she turned to writing to support herself, three children and her mother in law.

Some feminists trace the beginning of the feminist movement back to her.

she wrote in the French vernacular rather than Latin making her work widely available to the masses.

what book did Christina de pizan write
The city of ladies
the treasure (a females guide to rhetoric)
what virtues did Christina de Pizan advocate for women?
reason
rectitude
justice
what did Christina de pizan advise women to do?
learn rhetoric as language was one of a very few avenues of self defense a woman of the time had at her disposal.
how did Christina de Pizan justify women using rhetoric?
she argued that God gave women mouths and therefore wanted them to speak and that women are the peacemakers while men are headstrong by nature.
who was Margaret Fell?
She was one of the original Quakers, helped George Fox found the religion at her home Swarthmoor Hall. Wrote many leaflets including “womens speaking justified” One of the first to suggest women being equal to men. her greatest rhetorical achievement is her insistence to allow women to publically speak.
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