Review for Ap Essay
AP WORLD: POST CLASSICALCHAPTER 7 NAME_______________________________ DATE________ PERIOD______ 1. The decline of the Abbasid power was due to all of these reasons EXCEPT: (A) the difficulty of governing a widespread empire. (B) invasions of European crusaders. (C) regional loyalties. (D) Shi’ia dissenters and slave revolts. (E) rebellious governors and new dynasties. 2. During the Abbasid period, women (A) were at the center of the Shia opposition to Abbasid rule. (B) frequently became Sufi mystics because of the freedoms allowed them. (C) acquired rights to own land and engage in business. D) became increasingly isolated in the harem and behind the veil. (E) exercised no influence in palace and harem politics. 3. During the Abbasid period, the use of slaves (A) began to gradually die out as economically profitless. (B) spread throughout the region and came to dominate agriculture. (C) was legally curtailed by the Muslim courts. (D) was confined to the royal court. (E) expanded as male and female slaves were valued for their beauty, intelligence and strength. 4. The Seljuks (A) conquered the Abbasid caliphate and Byzantine Empire. B) favored the Shi’a sect and became its protector. (C) settled in the lands of modern Turkey and became the Abbasids’ protector. (D) were unable to stop the Crusades or end crusader control of Jerusalem. (E) became a sect of Islam devoted to learning, mysticism, and medicine. 5. The greatest beneficiaries of the sustained urban prosperity during the rule of the Abbasids were (A) women, who acquired rights to own property. (B) slaves, when the caliphs emancipated them and gave them lands to farm. (C) poor workers, who were freed from taxes. (D) artisans, artists, architects, and merchants. E) foreigners, especially non-Muslims, who ran the empire’s bureaucracy. 6. During the Abbasid caliphate, the language associated with administration and scholarship was (A) Arabic. (B) Turkish. (C) Hebrew. (D) Armenian. (E) Persian. 7. The Sufis (A) condemned scientific and cultural borrowing from non-Muslim sources. (B) helped spread Islam. (C) objected to the violence and social strife, which befell the Abbasid world. (D) led religious wars against Christians in Europe and the Middle East. (E) attempted to blend Islam with Judaism and Christianity. 8. The Abbasid reign ended when A) Mongol soldiers sacked Baghdad. (B) the Seljuk Turks overran the empire. (C) Christian crusaders took Jerusalem. (D) the Mameluks invaded the empire. (E) Shi’a governors and troops revolted and murdered the last caliph. 9. All of these Indian groups were attracted to Islam and converted EXCEPT: (A) people who lived in the Indus and Ganges River plains. (B) Buddhists. (C) Untouchables. (D) low-caste Hindus. (E) high-caste Hindus. 10. Contacts between Hindus and Muslims led to (A) the seclusion of Hindu women. (B) constant warfare between the two groups. C) the absorption by the Muslims of many Hindu social practices. (D) mass conversion of Hindus to Islam. (E) decreased trade opportunities. 11. What was the rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid dynasty? A) Primogeniture or succession of the oldest son B) Election by the Arabic tribes of Mecca C) Degree of relationship to Muhammad D) Demonstration of an unusual degree of holiness E) There was no accepted rule of succession. 12. How did the Shi’a react to the later Abbasid dynasty? A) They accepted them as the rightful rulers and became the strongest supporters of the Abbasid caliphs.
B) Shi’a revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty. C) They forced the Abbasids to abdicate in favor of a family more closely related to the Prophet. D) They were optimistic about the Abbasids accepting their beliefs. E) Shi’a sects were eliminated by the caliphate. 13. Which of the following was NOT a cause of the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid caliphate? A) Failure of the irrigation systems B) Pillaging by mercenary armies C) Decline of the cities, leading to falling demand for food supplies D) Spiraling taxation
E) Local peasant rebellions 14. What did the Abbasid creation of the harem define? A) The increasing seclusion of women from public life B) The continued designation of Mecca as a holy place protected by annual truce C) The recognition of the Shi’a celebration of the death of Husayn D) The establishment of long-distance trade with the Indian subcontinent E) The belief in the infallibility of the caliphs 15. Put the following conquerors of Baghdad in the correct chronological order. A) Mongols, Buyids, Seljuk Turks B) Buyids, Mongols, Seljuk Turks C) Seljuk Turks, Buyids, Mongols
D) Buyids, Seljuk Turks, Mongols E) Mongols, Seljuk Turks, Buyids 16. Who was Salah-ud-Din? A) The author of the Shah-Nama B) The most famous Muslim interpreter of Greek philosophy C) The commander who brought Islam to south Asia D) The commander responsible for the conquest of Sind E) The commander responsible for the reconquest of the crusader territories 17. Which of the following statements concerning the Crusades is most accurate? A) The crusaders were successful only because of the political fragmentation of Islam and the element of surprise.
B) Crusader strongholds in the Holy Land were held until the 18th century. C) The crusaders succeeded because of the overwhelming superiority of Western military technology. D) Jewish support for the Christian crusaders guaranteed their victory in the Holy Land. E) The crusaders brought prosperity to the Middle East. 18. What group within Islam that emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship? A) Sunni B) Shi’a C) Ulama D) Sufis E) Buyids 19. What group within Islam that stressed a more conservative interpretation of the law and religious texts? A) Ulama B) Sufis C) Sunni D) Buyids E) Shi’a 0. Sufis proved to be effective missionaries for Islam in southern Asia because A) they enjoyed the support of the Hindu princes. B) they became involved in the trading communities. C) they were supported by huge armies of Arabs. D) they rejected low-caste Hindus in preference for converts among the brahmin elite. E) they shared much with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics. SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The third Abbasid caliph, __________, attempted unsuccessfully to reconcile moderate Shi’a to the Abbasid dynasty. . The __________ Turks were nomadic invaders from central Asia who ruled in the name of the Abbasid caliphs from the mid-11th century. 3. The Muslim commander who reconquered territory from Christian rulers in Palestine was__________. 4. The __________ were Islamic mystics who were largely responsible for the conversion of southeast Asia. 5. The Arab general who conquered Sind and added it to the Umayyad Empire was __________. 6. The Indian system of mathematical notation was known as __________ and was used in two scientific revolutions. . The Turkic dynasty established in Afghanistan in 962, the __________, was responsible for the invasion of the Indian subcontinent. 8. The ruler who established an independent Muslim kingdom with its capital at Delhi was __________. 9. __________ was a Buddhist trading empire that controlled trade through the Malacca Strait between Malaya and Sumatra. 10. Islam was disseminated to other ports from the most powerful trading state on North Java, __________. TRUE/FALSE. Write “T” if the statement is true and “F” if the statement is false. 1.
Many of the soldiers within the mercenary private armies common to the later Abbasid Empire were slaves. 2. Most of the converts to Islam in India were formerly Buddhist or members of the Brahmin caste. 3. The conversion of southeastern Asia to Islam was accomplished by conversion of port cities, followed by extension into the back country. 4. Sati was the Indian ritual that required the immolation of the living widows of deceased men. 5. One of the great war commanders of the Mongols was Kublai Khan. 6. The Seljuk Turks were central Asian nomads who captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph. . The most powerful trading city on the mainland of Malaya was Goa. 8. In response to the Islamic challenge, Hindus placed greater emphasis on bhaktic cults that stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds to the gods. 9. A brilliant Islamic theologian, al-Ghazali attempted to fuse Mongol and Quranic traditions. 10. The ulama were orthodox religious scholars within Islam who pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology. Free-Response Question To what extent did urban quality of life mirror political developments during the