consumer generated advertising
The latest promotional craze is to let your customers actually create your advertising for you. User-Generated Content (UGC), also known as Consumer-generated media (CGM), includes the millions of online consumer comments, opinions, advice, consumer-to-consumer discussions, reviews, photos, images, videos, podcasts and webcasts and product-related stories available to other consumers through digital technology. Marketers that embrace this strategy understand that it is OK to let people have fun with their products. Some marketers encourage consumers to contribute their own Do-It-Yourself (DIY) ads.
a practice in which firms outsource marketing activities (such as selecting an ad) to a community of users, i.e., a crowd. The idea behind crowdsourcing is that if you want to know what consumers think and what they like, the most logical thing to do is to ask them.
the company wants to move its products by convincing channel members to offer them and entice their customers to select these items. Promotion efforts will “push” the products from producers to consumer by focusing on personal selling, trade advertising, and sales promotions.
ounting on consumers to desire its products and thus convince retailers to respond to this demand by stocking them. Efforts will focus on media advertising and consumer sales promotion to stimulate interest among end consumers who will “pull” the product onto store shelves and then into their shopping carts.
non-personal communication paid for by an identified sponsor who is using mass media to persuade or inform. Advertising informs, reminds, and creates (persuades) consumer desire. In other words, advertising is intended to bring about some change in its audience, whether to create awareness of a product, to change the way we think about it, or to get us to run out and buy it immediately.
used to persuade consumers to choose a specific good or service. Institutional advertising is used to promote an entire organization (corporate image advertising), to express the opinions of an organization (advocacy advertising), or to support a cause (public service advertising)
retail and local advertising
used to promote a local store or service.
An advertising campaign is a coordinated, comprehensive plan that carries out promotion objectives and results in a series of advertisements placed in various media over a certain period. Although a campaign may be based around a single ad idea, most use multiple messages with all ads in the campaign having the same look-and-feel.
problem-solving process for getting a message to a target audience in the most effective way. Planning decisions include audience selection and where, when, and how frequent the exposure should be. Thus, the first task for a media planner is to find out when and where people in the target market are most likely to be exposed to the communication.
strenghts and weaknesses of traditional media
TV = extremely creative, can be a high-impact message
Radio = targeted audiences, low cost
Newspaper = wide exposure, flexible format
Magazines = Targeted audiences, long life and repeat reading
TV = message impression is fleeting, fragmented audience
Radio = lack of attention, not appropriate for some products
Newspapers = short time reading, low readership (overall)
Magazines = Expensive, long deadline dates
hierarchy of effects
The marketer “pushes” the consumer through a series of steps, or a hierarchy of effects, from initial awareness of a product to brand loyalty. The task of moving the consumer up the hierarchy becomes more difficult at each step. Many potential buyers may drop out along the way, leaving fewer of the target group inclined to go the distance and become loyal customers. Each part of this path entails different communication objectives to “push” people to the next level:
A. Create awareness: The first step is to make members of the target market aware that there is a new brand of cologne on the market.
B. Inform the Market: The next step is to provide prospective users with knowledge about the benefits the new product has to offer—to position it relative other colognes.
C. Create Desire: The next task is to create favorable feelings toward the product and to convince at least some members of this group that they would rather splash on some Hunk instead of other colognes.
D. Encourage Purchase and Trial: As the expression goes, “How do ya know ’til ya try it?” The company now needs to get some of the men who have become interested in the cologne to try it.
E. Build Loyalty: Of course, the real test is loyalty: To convince customers to stay with Hunk after they have gone through the first bottle. Promotion efforts must maintain ongoing communications with current users to reinforce the bond they feel with the product.
refers to any media that are digital rather than analog. The more popular types of digital media advertisers use today include websites, mobile or cellular phones, and digital video such as YouTube.
types of advertising
• Banners, rectangular graphics at the top or bottom of web pages, were the first form of web advertising.
• Buttons are small banner-type advertisements that a company can place anywhere on a page.
• A pop-up ad is an advertisement that appears on the screen while a web page loads or after it has loaded.
• Search engines and directory listings are ways for people to find web pages of interest to them. A web search engine is a program that searches for documents with specified keywords. Unlike search engines, a web directory does not display lists of web pages based on key words but instead lists sites by categories and subcategories.
• E-mail advertising that transmits messages to very large numbers of inboxes simultaneously is one of the easiest ways to communicate with consumers – it is the same price whether you send ten messages or ten thousand. One downside to this platform is the explosion of spam. The industry defines this practice as sending unsolicited e-mail to five or more people not personally known to the sender. Many websites that offer e-mail give surfers the opportunity to refuse unsolicited e-mail via junk e-mail blockers. This permission marketing strategy gives the consumer the power to opt in or opt out.
• Mobile Advertising: The Mobile Marketing Association defines mobile advertising as ” a form of advertising that is communicated to the consumer via a handset. Video sharing describes the strategy of uploading video recordings or vlogs (pronounced vee-logs) to Internet sites such as YouTube so that thousands or even millions of other Internet users can check them out. For marketers, YouTube provides vast opportunities to build relationships with consumers.
full service and limited service advertising
Although some firms create their own advertising in-house, in many cases several specialized companies work together to develop an advertising campaign. Typically, the firm retains one or more outside advertising agencies to oversee this process. A limited-service agency provides one or more specialized services, such as media buying or creative development. In contrast, a full-service agency supplies most or all of the services a campaign requires, including research, creation of ad copy and art, media selection, and production of the final messages.
traditional communication model
The traditional communication model includes a message source that encodes an idea into a message and transmits the message through some medium. Marketing messages exploit a variety of appeals and message structures. The message is transmitted using one of several different communication media and is finally delivered to a receiver, who decodes the message and may provide feedback to the source. Anything that interferes with the communication is called noise.
• Advertising is non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using the mass media.
• Sales promotions are marketing activities that are used to stimulate immediate sales by providing extra value or generating interest in a product.
• Public relations consists of marketing efforts or activities to portray an organization and its products positively by influencing the perceptions of various publics, including customers, government officials, and shareholders.
• Personal selling is direct interaction between a company representative and a customer that can occur in person, by phone, or even by interactive computer link.
• Direct marketing: Marketers also use direct mail, telemarketing, and other direct marketing activities to create personal appeals. Like personal selling, direct marketing provides direct communication with a consumer or business customer. Because direct marketing activities seek to gain a direct response from individual consumers, as we saw in Chapter 7 the source can target a communication to market segments of a few or— with today’s technology— even segments of one.
pretest and posttesting ads
Although it is clear that advertising does increase sales, advertisers need to conduct research to determine whether specific advertisements are effective. One method of doing this is to conduct pre-testing or copy testing (a procedure that measures whether an ad is received, comprehended, and responded to in the desired manner). Versions of this form of testing include concept testing, testing of TV advertising, and finished ad testing. Advertisers often need more solid evidence that a campaign is producing a return a on their investment. In order to do this, advertisers can conduct posttest research to make sure that ads are doing well. Three ways to measure the impact of an advertisement are unaided-recall (can consumers remember ads—no prompting is allowed), aided-recall (prompting is allowed to aid consumers in remembering ads), and attitudinal measures (probes deeper by examining consumer’s beliefs or feelings about the product before and after being exposed to messages about it).
branded entertainment and support media
More and more marketers rely on paid product placements in TV shows and movies to grab the attention of consumers who tune out traditional ad messages as fast as they see them. These placements are an important form of branded entertainment; a strategy where marketers integrate products into all sorts of venues including movies, television shows, videogames, novels and even retail settings. Beyond movies and television shows, what better way to promote to the video generation than through brand placements in video games? The industry calls this technique advergaming.
Support media reach people who may not have been reached by mass media advertising and these platforms support the messages traditional media delivers.
• Out-of-home media. In recent years, outdoor advertising has pushed the technology envelope with digital signage that enables the source to change the message at will.
• Place-based media
• RFID technology (radio frequency identification)