Resolved Punchline: Targeted Killing is a Morally Permissible Foreign Policy Tool
I affirm the resolution, “Resolved: Targeted killing is a morally permissible foreign policy tool. ” Affirming achieves the value of morality defined by the Random House For clarity I offer the following definitions Targeted Killing-Targeted killing is the intentional killing, by a government or its agents, of a civilian or “unlawful combatant” targeted by the government, who is not in the government’s custody. Morally Permissible- means to meet some baseline requirement of morality.
In other words, for something to be morally permissible, it does not necessarily have to be the best course of action or a moral duty, but rather must only be not immoral. Foreign Policy- a line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government Before I begin, I would like to state the difference between assassination and targeted killing. Abraham D. Sofaer states “When people call a targeted killing an “assassination,” they are attempting to preclude debate on the merits of the action. Assassination is widely defined as murder, and is for that reason prohibited in the United States.
U. S. officials may not kill people merely because their policies are seen as detrimental to our interests. But killings in self-defense are no more “assassinations” in international affairs than they are murders when undertaken by our police forces against domestic killers. Targeted killings in self-defense have been authoritatively determined by the federal government to fall outside the assassination prohibition”. Abraham D. Sofaer Friday, March 26, 2004 That said, because it is the implied standard of the resolution, my value for this round will be Morality.
In order to achieve morality, I offer the criterion of self defense I will go into further depth about the justification of this criterion later on in my case Contention 1- Targeted killing can be used to stop a pending terror attack. Gabriella Blum and Philip Heymann, “Law ; Policy of Targeted Killing,” Harvard National Security Journal, June 27, 2010 Imagine that the U. S. intelligence services obtain reliable information that a known individual is plotting a terrorist attack against the United States.
The individual is outside the United States, in a country where law and order are weak and unreliable. U. S. officials can request that country to arrest the individual, but they fear that by the time the individual is located, arrested, and extradited the terror plot would be too advanced, or would already have taken place. It is also doubtful that the host government is either able or willing to perform the arrest. Moreover, even if it did arrest the suspected terrorist, it might decide to release him shortly thereafter, exposing the U. S. to a renewed risk.
Should the United States be allowed to kill the suspected terrorist in the foreign territory, without first capturing, arresting, and trying him? This means targeted killing can help ensure victory by thwarting pending terror attacks which will deter future attacks as terrorists need to have hope of success or they are unlikely to continue planning attacks. Contention 2- Targeted killing can create a power vacuum and reduce terror attacks. According to some reports, the killing of leaders of Palestinian armed groups weakened the will and ability of these groups to execute suicide attacks against Israelis.
By deterring the leaders of terrorist organizations and creating in some cases a structural vacuum, waves of targeted killing operations were followed by a lull in subsequent terrorist attacks, and in some instances, brought the leaders of Palestinian factions to call for a ceasefire. The Obama administration embraced the targeted killing tactic, holding it to be the most effective way to get at Al- Qaeda and Taliban members in the ungoverned and ungovernable tribal areas along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border or in third countries.
This means that targeted killing can help ensure victory by ensuring the enemy is leaderless and less capable, perhaps less willing, to carry out new attacks. Contention 3- States have the legal and moral obligation to protect its citizens against threats. There have been 56 terrorist attacks according to the analysis, around 15,000 have died in terrorist attacks in Iraq, nearly 1,500 in Russia, more than 4,200 have died in Israel, around 200 in Spain and more than 100 in the Philippines. The numbers sometimes are imprecise because of the nature of the attacks, which leave many missing.
In order to prevent more deaths the states have the obligation to use self defense in order to protect national security. ‘The 2002 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Report on Terrorism and Human Rights. similarly leaves room for the use of deadly force against suspected terrorists, even under a general law enforcement model. It notes that “in situations where a state’s population is threatened by violence, the state has the right and obligation to protect the population against such threats and in so doing may use lethal force in certain situations. So it clear that 1. Targeted killing prevents future terrorist attacks and 2. States have the legal and moral obligation to protect its citizens against threats. For all these reasons I strongly urge a vote for the affirmations. I am now open for cross examination. See also: List of Taliban fatality reports in Pakistan US Drone Strike Statistics estimate according to theNew America Foundation analysis of Newspaper articles. | Year| Number of Attacks| Number Killed| | | Min. | Max. | 2004| 1| 4| 5| 2005| 2| 6| 7| 2006| 2| 23| 23| 2007| 4| 56| 77| 008| 33| 274| 314| 2009| 53| 369| 725| 2010| 118| 607| 993| 2011| 70| 378| 536| 2012| 5| 28| 31| Total| 288| 1,745| 2,711| US Drone Strike statistic based on extensive research by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism: * Total reported killed: 2,383 – 3,019 * Civilians reported killed: 464 – 815 * Children reported killed: 175 * Total reported injured: 1,149-1,241 * Total strikes: 312 * Obama strikes: 260 9/11 attacks, the Holocaust, ? 1993 (Feb. ): Bombing of World Trade Center (WTC); 6 killed. ? 1993 (Oct. ): Killing of U. S. soldiers in Somalia. 1996 (June): Truck bombing at Khobar Towers barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killed 19 Americans. ? 1998 (Aug. ): Bombing of U. S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania; 224 killed, including 12 Americans. ? 1999 (Dec. ): Plot to bomb millennium celebrations in Seattle foiled when customs agents arrest an Algerian smuggling explosives into the U. S. ? 2000 (Oct. ): Bombing of the USS Cole in port in Yemen; 17 U. S. sailors killed. ? 2001 (Sept. ): Destruction of WTC; attack on Pentagon. Total dead 2,992. ? 2001 (Dec. ): Man tried to denote shoe bomb on flight from Paris to Miami. 2002 (April): Explosion at historic synagogue in Tunisia left 21 dead, including 11 German tourists. ? 2002 (May): Car exploded outside hotel in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 14, including 11 French citizens. ? 2002 (June): Bomb exploded outside American consulate in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 12. ? 2002 (Oct. ): Boat crashed into oil tanker off Yemen coast, killing 1. ? 2002 (Oct. ): Nightclub bombings in Bali, Indonesia, killed 202, mostly Australian citizens. ? 2002 (Nov. ): Suicide attack on a hotel in Mombasa, Kenya, killed 16. 2003 (May): Suicide bombers killed 34, including 8 Americans, at housing compounds for Westerners in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ? 2003 (May): 4 bombs killed 33 people targeting Jewish, Spanish, and Belgian sites in Casablanca, Morocco. ? 2003 (Aug. ): Suicide car-bomb killed 12, injured 150 at Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. ? 2003 (Nov. ): Explosions rocked a Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, housing compound, killing 17. ? 2003 (Nov. ): Suicide car-bombers simultaneously attacked 2 synagogues in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 25 and injuring hundreds. 2003 (Nov. ): Truck bombs detonated at London bank and British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey, killing 26. ? 2004 (March): 10 bombs on 4 trains exploded almost simultaneously during the morning rush hour in Madrid, Spain, killing 191 and injuring more than 1,500. ? 2004 (May): Terrorists attacked Saudi oil company offices in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, killing 22. ? 2004 (June): Terrorists kidnapped and executed American Paul Johnson, Jr. , in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ? 2004 (Sept. ): Car bomb outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, killed 9. 2004 (Dec. ): Terrorists entered the U. S. Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 9 (including 4 attackers). ? 2005 (July): Bombs exploded on 3 trains and a bus in London, England, killing 52. ? 2005 (Oct. ): 22 killed by 3 suicide bombs in Bali, Indonesia. ? 2005 (Nov. ): 57 killed at 3 American hotels in Amman, Jordan. ? 2006 (Jan. ): Two suicide bombers carrying police badges blow themselves up near a celebration at the Police Academy in Baghdad, killing nearly 20 police officers. Al-Qaeda in Iraq takes responsibility. ? 2006 (Aug. : Police arrest 24 British-born Muslims, most of whom have ties to Pakistan, who had allegedly plotted to blow up as many as 10 planes using liquid explosives. Officials say details of the plan were similar to other schemes devised by al-Qaeda. ? 2007 (April): Suicide bombers attack a government building in Algeria’s capital, Algiers, killing 35 and wounding hundreds more. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb claims responsibility. ? 2007 (April): Eight people, including two Iraqi legislators, die when a suicide bomber strikes inside the Parliament building in Baghdad.
An organization that includes al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia claims responsibility. In another attack, the Sarafiya Bridge that spans the Tigris River is destroyed. ? 2007 (June): British police find car bombs in two vehicles in London. The attackers reportedly tried to detonate the bombs using cell phones but failed. Government officials say al-Qaeda is linked to the attempted attack. The following day, an SUV carrying bombs bursts into flames after it slams into an entrance to Glasgow Airport. Officials say the attacks are connected. ? 2007 (Dec. : As many as 60 people are killed in two suicide attacks near United Nations offices and government buildings in Algiers, Algeria. The bombings occur within minutes of each other. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, formerly called the Salafist Group for Preaching, claims responsibility. It’s the worst attack in the Algeria in more than 10 years. ? 2007 (Dec. ): Benazir Bhutto, former Pakistani prime minister, is assassinated in a suicide attack on Dec. 27, 2007, at a campaign rally in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. President Pervez Musharraf blames al Qaeda for the attack, which kills 23 other people.
Baitullah Mehsud, a Taliban leader with close ties to al Qaeda is later cited as the assassin. ? 2008 (Jan. ): In the worst attack in Iraq in months, a suicide bomber kills 30 people at a home where mourners were paying their respects to the family of a man killed in a car bomb. The Iraqi military blames the attack on al-Qaeda in Iraq. ? 2008 (Feb. ): Nearly 100 people die when two women suicide bombers, who are believed to be mentally impaired, attack crowded pet markets in eastern Baghdad. The U. S. military says al-Qaeda in Iraq has been recruiting female patients at psychiatric hospitals to become suicide bombers. 2008 (April): A suicide bomber attacks the funeral for two nephews of a prominent Sunni tribal leader, Sheik Kareem Kamil al-Azawi, killing 30 people in Iraq’s Diyala Province. ? 2008 (April): A suicide car bomber kills 40 people in Baquba, the capital of Diyala Province in Iraq. ? 2008 (April): Thirty-five people die and 62 are injured when a woman detonates explosives that she was carrying under her dress in a busy shopping district in Iraq’s Diyala Province. ? 2008 (May): At least 12 worshipers are killed and 44 more injured when a bomb explodes in the Bin Salman mosque near Sana, Yemen. 2008 (May): An al-Qaeda suicide bomber detonates explosives in Hit, a city in the Anbar Province of Iraq, killing six policemen and four civilians, and injuring 12 other people. ? 2008 (June): A car bomb explodes outside the Danish Embassy in Pakistan, killing six people and injuring dozens. Al-Qaeda claims responsibility, saying the attack was retaliation for the 2006 publication of political cartoons in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten that depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ? 2008 (June): A female suicide bomber kills 15 and wounds 40 others, including seven Iraqi policemen, near a courthouse in Baquba, Iraq. 2008 (June): A suicide bomber kills at least 20 people at a meeting between sheiks and Americans in Karmah, a town west of Baghdad. ? 2008 (Aug. ): About two dozens worshippers are killed in three separate attacks as they make their way toward Karbala to celebrate the birthday of 9th-century imam Muhammad al-Mahdi. Iraqi officials blame al-Qaeda in Iraq for the attacks. ? 2008 (Aug. ): A bomb left on the street explodes and tears through a bus carrying Lebanese troops, killing 15 people, nine of them soldiers.
No one claims responsibility for the attack, but in 2007, the army fought an al-Qaeda linked Islamist group in Tripoli. ? 2008 (Aug. ): At least 43 people are killed when a suicide bomber drives an explosives-laden car into a police academy in Issers, a town in northern Algeria. ? 2008 (Aug. ): Two car bombs explode at a military command and a hotel in Bouira, killing a dozen people. No group takes responsibility for either attack, Algerian officials said they suspect al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is behind the bombings. ? 2008 (Sept. ): In its first acknowledged ground attack inside Pakistan, U.
S. commandos raid a village that is home to al-Qaeda militants in the tribal region near the border with Afghanistan. The number of casualties is unclear. ? 2008 (Sept. ): A car bomb and a rocket strike the U. S. embassy in Yemen as staff arrived to work, killing 16 people, including 4 civilians. At least 25 suspected al-Qaeda militants are arrested for the attack. ? 2008 (Nov. ): at least 28 people die and over 60 more are injured when three bombs explode minutes apart in Baghdad, Iraq. Officials suspect the explosions are linked to al-Qaeda. 2009 (April): on April 6 in Baghdad, a series of six attacks kills 36 people and injure more than 100 in Shiite neighborhoods; April 23: at least 80 people are killed in three separate suicide bombings in Baghdad. This is the largest single-day death toll due to attacks since February 2008. One of the bombings is reportedly set off by a female, who was standing among a group of women and children receiving food aid. ? 2009 (Dec. ): A Nigerian man on a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit attempted to ignite an explosive device hidden in his underwear.
The explosive device that failed to detonate was a mixture of powder and liquid that did not alert security personnel in the airport. The alleged bomber, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, told officials later that he was directed by the terrorist group al-Qaeda. The suspect was already on the government’s watch list when he attempted the bombing; his father, a respected Nigerian banker, had told the U. S. government that he was worried about his son’s increased extremism. ? 2009 (Dec. ): A suicide bomber kills eight Americans civilians, seven of them CIA agents, at a base in Afghanistan.
It’s the deadliest attack on the agency since 9/11. The attacker is reportedly a double agent from Jordan who was acting on behalf of al-Qaeda. ? 2010 (Oct. ): Two packages are found on separate cargo planes. Each package contains a bomb consisting of 300 to 400 grams (11-14 oz) of plastic explosives and a detonating mechanism. The bombs are discovered as a result of intelligence received from Saudi Arabia’s security chief. The packages, bound from Yemen to the United States, are discovered at en route stop-overs, one in England and one in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.
A week after the packages are found, al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) takes responsibility for the plot. ? 2011 (Jan. ): Two Frenchmen are killed in Niger. France highly suspects the al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). ? 2011 (April): Men claiming to be Moroccan members of AQIM appear on the internet and threaten to attack Moroccan interests. The following week a bomb killing 15 people, including 10 foreigners, explodes in Marrakesh, Morocco. Read more: Terrorist Acts Suspected of or Inspired by al-Qaeda — Infoplease. om http://www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0884893. html#ixzz1n33yv896 Worldwide terrorism-related deaths on the rise Targeted assassinations kill innocent civilians or children. We have to remember that these terrorists have also killed 50 times the number of civilians around the globe. “There have been 56 terrorist attacks according to the analysis, around 15,000 have died in terrorist attacks in Iraq, nearly 1,500 in Russia, more than 4,200 have died in Israel, around 200 in Spain and more than 100 in the Philippines.
The numbers sometimes are imprecise because of the nature of the attacks, which leave many missing. “So as you see 16,800 civilians or more have been killed as a result of terrorist attacks, compared to the 100 or so civilians who have been injured in the past 10-20 years as a result of drone strikes. Now, this shows that targeted killing is morally permissible because we are making sure that 16,800 deaths as result of terrorist attacks stay 16,800. There have been more people who have died from terrorist attacks than to the miniscule number of people who have been injured from drone strikes.
This defeats his … contention because I have already proved this contention wrong and I have already proved the resolution true because under Article 51 of the United Nations charter we are allowed to use targeted killing in order to defend ourselves. http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/5889435/#. T0P5lfFtoy8 Article 51: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.
Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. http://www. un. org/cyberschoolbus/untour/subunh. htm United Nations Headquarters Welcome to the United Nations! The Headquarters of the World Organization is located on an 18-acre site on the East side of Manhattan.
It is an international zone belonging to all Member States. The United Nations has its own security force, fire department and postal administration. Visitors from all over the world often like to send postcards back home with United Nations stamps – these stamps can only be mailed from the United Nations. The Headquarters consist of four main buildings: the General Assembly building, the Conference Building, the 39-floor Secretariat building, and the Dag Hammarskjold Library, which was added in 1961. The complex was designed by an international team of 11 architects, led by Wallace K.
Harrison from the United States. Conduct of Intelligence Activities 2. 1Need. Accurate and timely information about the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons and their agents is essential to informed decisionmaking in the areas of national defense and foreign relations. Collection of such information is a priority objective and will be pursued in a vigorous, innovative and responsible manner that is consistent with the Constitution and applicable law and respectful of the principles upon which the United States was founded. . 2Purpose. This Order is intended to enhance human and technical collection techniques, especially those undertaken abroad, and the acquisition of significant foreign intelligence, as well as the detection and countering of international terrorist activities and espionage conducted by foreign powers. Set forth below are certain general principles that, in addition to and consistent with applicable laws, are intended to achieve the proper balance between the acquisition of essential information and protection of individual interests.
Nothing in this Order shall be construed to apply to or interfere with any authorized civil or criminal law enforcement responsibility of any department or agency. 2. 3Collection of Information. Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to collect, retain or disseminate information concerning United States persons only in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General, consistent with the authorities provided by Part 1 of his Order. Those procedures shall permit collection, retention and dissemination of the following types of information: (a) Information that is publicly available or collected with the consent of the person concerned; (b) Information constituting foreign intelligence or counterintelligence, including such information concerning corporations or other commercial organizations.
Collection within the United States of foreign intelligence not otherwise obtainable shall be undertaken by the FBI or, when significant foreign intelligence is sought, by other authorized agencies of the Intelligence Community, provided that no foreign intelligence collection by such agencies may be undertaken for the purpose of acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons; (c) Information obtained in the course of a lawful foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, international narcotics or international terrorism investigation; (d) Information needed to protect the safety of any persons or organizations, including those who are targets, victims or hostages of international terrorist organizations; (e) Information needed to protect foreign intelligence or counterintelligence sources or methods from unauthorized disclosure.
Collection within the United States shall be undertaken by the FBI except that other agencies of the Intelligence Community may also collect such information concerning present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting; (f) Information concerning persons who are reasonably believed to be potential sources or contacts for the purpose of determining their suitability or credibility; (g) Information arising out of a lawful personnel, physical or communications security investigation; (h) Information acquired by overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons; (i) Incidentally obtained information that may indicate involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws; and (j) Information necessary for administrative purposes. In addition, agencies within the Intelligence Community may disseminate information, other than information derived from signals intelligence, to each appropriate agency within the Intelligence Community for purposes of allowing the recipient agency to determine whether the information is elevant to its responsibilities and can be retained by it. 2. 4Collection Techniques. Agencies within the Intelligence Community shall use the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad. Agencies are not authorized to use such techniques as electronic surveillance, unconsented physical search, mail surveillance, physical surveillance, or monitoring devices unless they are in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such procedures shall protect constitutional and other legal rights and limit use of such information to lawful governmental purposes.
These procedures shall not authorize: (a) The CIA to engage in electronic surveillance within the United States except for the purpose of training, testing, or conducting countermeasures to hostile electronic surveillance; (b) Unconsented physical searches in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for: (1) Searches by counterintelligence elements of the military services directed against military personnel within the United States or abroad for intelligence purposes, when authorized by a military commander empowered to approve physical searches for law enforcement purposes, based upon a finding of probable cause to believe that such persons are acting as agents of foreign powers; and (2) Searches by CIA of personal property of non-United States persons lawfully in its possession. (c) Physical surveillance of a United States person in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for: (1) Physical surveillance of present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present of former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting; and (2) Physical surveillance of a military person employed by a nonintelligence element of a military service. (d) Physical surveillance of a United States person abroad to collect foreign intelligence, except to obtain significant information that cannot reasonably be acquired by other means. 2. 5Attorney General Approval.
The Attorney General hereby is delegated the power to approve the use for intelligence purposes, within the United States or against a United States person abroad, of any technique for which a warrant would be required if undertaken for law enforcement purposes, provided that such techniques shall not be undertaken unless the Attorney General has determined in each case that there is probable cause to believe that the technique is directed against a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power. Electronic surveillance, as defined in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, shall be conducted in accordance with that Act, as well as this Order. 2. 6Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities.
Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to: (a) Cooperate with appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose of protecting the employees, information, property and facilities of any agency within the Intelligence Community; (b) Unless otherwise precluded by law or this Order, participate in law enforcement activities to investigate or prevent clandestine intelligence activities by foreign powers, or international terrorist or narcotics activities; (c) Provide specialized equipment, technical knowledge, or assistance of expert personnel for use by any department or agency, or, when lives are endangered, to support local law enforcement agencies. Provision of assistance by expert personnel shall be approved in each case by the General Counsel of the providing agency; and (d) Render any other assistance and cooperation to law enforcement authorities not precluded by applicable law. 2. 7Contracting.
Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to enter into contracts or arrangements for the provision of goods or services with private companies or institutions in the United States and need not reveal the sponsorship of such contracts or arrangements for authorized intelligence purposes. Contracts or arrangements with academic institutions may be undertaken only with the consent of appropriate officials of the institution. 2. 8Consistency With Other Laws. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to authorize any activity in violation of the Constitution or statutes of the United States. 2. 9Undisclosed Participation in Organizations Within the United States.
No one acting on behalf of agencies within the Intelligence Community may join or otherwise participate in any organization in the United States on behalf of any agency within the Intelligence Community without disclosing his intelligence affiliation to appropriate officials of the organization, except in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such participation shall be authorized only if it is essential to achieving lawful purposes as determined by the agency head or designee. No such participation may be undertaken for the purpose of influencing the activity of the organization r its members except in cases where: (a) The participation is undertaken on behalf of the FBI in the course of a lawful investigation; or (b) The organization concerned is composed primarily of individuals who are not United States persons and is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power. 2. 10Human Experimentation. No agency within the Intelligence Community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The subject’s informed consent shall be documented as required by those guidelines. 2. 11Prohibition on Assassination. No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination. 2. 12Indirect Participation.
No agency of the Intelligence Community shall participate in or request any person to undertake activities forbidden by this Order. Afghanistan 19 November 1946 Albania 14 December 1955 Algeria 8 October 1962 Andorra 28 July 1993 Angola 1 December 1976 Antigua and Barbuda 11 November 1981 Argentina 24 October 1945 Armenia 2 March 1992 Australia 1 November 1945 Austria 14 December 1955 Azerbaijan 2 March 1992 Bahamas 18 September 1973 Bahrain 21 September 1971 Bangladesh 17 September 1974 Barbados 9 December 1966 Belarus 24 October 1945 Belgium 27 December 1945 Belize 25 September 1981 Benin 20 September 1960 Bhutan 21 September 1971 Bolivia 14 November 1945 Bosnia and Herzegovina 22 May 1992 Botswana 17 October 1966 Brazil 4 October 1945 Brunei Darussalam 21 September 1984 Bulgaria 14 December 1955 Burkina Faso 20 September 1960 Burundi 18 September 1962 Cambodia 14 December 1955 Cameroon 20 September 1960 Canada 9 November 1945 Cape Verde 16 September 1975 Central African Republic 20 September 1960 Chad 20 September 1960 Chile 24 October 1945 China 24 October 1945 Colombia 5 November 1945 Comoros 12 November 1975 Congo (Republic of the) 20 September 1960 Costa Rica 2 November 1945 Cote d’Ivoire 20 September 1960 Croatia 22 May 1992 Cuba 24 October 1945 Cyprus 20 September 1960 Czech Republic 19 January 1993 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 17 September 1991
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20 September 1960 Denmark 24 October 1945 Djibouti 20 September 1977 Dominica 18 December 1978 Dominican Republic 24 October 1945 Ecuador 21 December 1945 Egypt 24 October 1945 El Salvador 24 October 1945 Equatorial Guinea 12 November 1968 Eritrea 28 May 1993 Estonia 17 September 1991 Ethiopia 13 November 1945 Fiji 13 October 1970 Finland 14 December 1955 France 24 October 1945 Gabon 20 September 1960 Gambia 21 September 1965 Georgia 31 July 1992 Germany 18 September 1973 Ghana 8 March 1957 Greece 25 October 1945 Grenada 17 September 1974 Guatemala 21 November 1945 Guinea 12 December 1958 Guinea-Bissau 7 September 1974 Guyana 20 September 1966 Haiti 24 October 1945 Honduras 17 December 1945 Hungary 14 December 1955 Iceland 19 November 1946 India 30 October 1945 Indonesia 28 September 1950 Iran 24 October 1945 Iraq 21 December 1945 Ireland 14 December 1955 Israel 11 May 1949 Italy 14 December 1955 Jamaica 18 September 1962 Japan 18 December 1956 Jordan 14 December 1955 Kazakhstan 2 March 1992 Kenya 16 December 1963 Kiribati 14 September 1999 Kuwait 14 May 1963 Kyrgyzstan 2 March 1992 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 14 December 1955 Latvia 17 September 1991 Lebanon 24 October 1945 Lesotho 17 October 1966 Liberia 2 November 1945 Libya 14 December 1955
Liechtenstein 18 September 1990 Lithuania 17 September 1991 Luxembourg 24 October 1945 Madagascar 20 September 1960 Malawi 1 December 1964 Malaysia 17 September 1957 Maldives 21 September 1965 Mali 28 September 1960 Malta 1 December 1964 Marshall Islands 17 September 1991 Mauritania 27 October 1961 Mauritius 24 April 1968 Mexico 7 November 1945 Micronesia (Federated States of) 17 September 1991 Monaco 28 May 1993 Mongolia 27 October 1961 Montenegro 28 June 2006 Morocco 12 November 1956 Mozambique 16 September 1975 Myanmar 19 April 1948 Namibia 23 April 1990 Nauru 14 September 1999 Nepal 14 December 1955 Netherlands 10 December 1945 New Zealand 4 October 1945 Nicaragua 24 October 1945 Niger 20 September 1960 Nigeria 7 October 1960 Norway 27 November 1945 Oman 7 October 1971 Pakistan 30 September 1947 Palau 15 December 1994 Panama 13 November 1945 Papua New Guinea 10 October 1975 Paraguay 24 October 1945 Peru 31 October 1945 Philippines 24 October 1945 Poland 24 October 1945 Portugal 14 December 1955 Qatar 21 September 1971 Republic of Korea 17 September 1991 Republic of Moldova 2 March 1992 Romania 14 December 1955 Russian Federation 24 October 1945 Rwanda 18 September 1962 Saint Kitts and Nevis 23 September 1983 Saint Lucia 18 September 1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 September 1980
Samoa 15 December 1976 San Marino 2 March 1992 Sao Tome and Principe 16 September 1975 Saudi Arabia 24 October 1945 Senegal 28 September 1960 Serbia 1 November 2000 Seychelles 21 September 1976 Sierra Leone 27 September 1961 Singapore 21 September 1965 Slovakia 19 January 1993 Slovenia 22 May 1992 Solomon Islands 19 September 1978 Somalia 20 September 1960 South Africa 7 November 1945 Spain 14 December 1955 Sri Lanka 14 December 1955 Sudan 12 November 1956 Suriname 4 December 1975 Swaziland 24 September 1968 Switzerland 10 September 2002 Sweden 19 November 1946 Syria 24 October 1945 Tajikistan 2 March 1992 Thailand 16 December 1946
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 8 April 1993 Timor Leste 27 September 2002 Togo 20 September 1960 Tonga 14 September 1999 Trinidad and Tobago 18 September 1962 Tunisia 12 November 1956 Turkey 24 October 1945 Turkmenistan 2 March 1992 Tuvalu 5 September 2000 Uganda 25 October 1962 Ukraine 24 October 1945 United Arab Emirates 9 December 1971 United Kingdom 24 October 1945 United of Republic of Tanzania 14 December 1961 United States 24 October 1945 Uruguay 18 December 1945 Uzbekistan 2 March 1992 Vanuatu 15 September 1981 Venezuela 15 November 1945 Viet Nam 20 September 1977 Yemen 30 September 1947 Zambia 1 December 1964 Zimbabwe 25 August 1980