Research Methods Chapter 7 Flashcard
How many attributes does a dichotomous variable have?
Experiments cannot be used in the study of criminal justice policy because they require a hypothesis to test
Which of the following is least accurate?
Which of the following is not a central feature of the classical experiment?
A variable can be an independent in one experiment and a dependent in another
Which of the following is true concerning indecent and dependent variables in classical experiments?
The world we live in
Researchers conduct experiments in an attempt to develop a more generalized understanding about:
As another measure of the effect the independent variable has upon the dependent variable in the experimental group
Social science researchers use a control that hasn’t received the experimental stimulus in order to do what?
To guard against the “Hawthrone effect” in medical research scientists will give a placebo to the control group
Which of the following statements is accurate?
Deciding on the target population
The first deacon for selecting subjects for an experiment is:
Ask subjects whether they prefer to be in the experimental group or the control group then assign subjects based on their preference
Which example below is not a random assignment to experimental groups?
“all other things being equal”
Which of the following phrases is most true concerning random assignment to groups?
Which of the following is not considered a threat to internal validity in an experimental design?
Ability to measure subjects consistently over time
Which of the following is not an accurate example of threats to internal validity of experiments?
Decrease experimental mortality
Shortening that time between pretest and posttest or perhaps even offering cash payments to participants in an experiments are techniques that may be used to:
Construct validity and external validity
Two dimensions to generalizability are:
Both explanatory and evaluation studies
Experimentation is best suited for hypothesis testing in:
Threats to external validity are decreased by carefully controlling conditions
Which of the following is accurate?
Matching subjects in the experimental group to those in the comparison group.
When using a nonequivalent-groups design the researcher will handle subject assignment to groups by:
In Windom’s study of the effects of child abuse and its impact upon later criminal offenses, she selected a sample of children with court records of being abuse victims and gathered a comparison group that was matched on gender, race, age and socioeconomic status. The technique used in this case was:
A classical experimental design
A group of students who completed a research methods class at the local college were given a questionnaire to assess their feelings about the homeless and after were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was required to volunteer at the local homeless shelter while the control group was not. After one month of volunteering, members of both groups were asked to complete the questionnaire on feelings concerning the homeless again. What type of research design is this?
A cohort design
Graduates majoring in criminal justice and graduates majoring in psychology from the State University were part of a study to assess employment success of those receiving their degrees in May 2002. Six months after the graduation a questionnaire was sent out asking about their job seeking success. What type of design is this?
An independent variable on a dependent variable
Essentially, an experiment examines the effect of:
Events external to the experiment that will impact the results
The threat of history refers to:
As people grow and change, results can be impacted
Maturation as a threat to internal validity in experiments refers to:
In an experiment subjects are given a pre-test in an effort to assess their attitudes about a new federal sentencing law that Congress is debating. Subjects assigned to the experimental group are given a series of lectures by experts on the impact the new law will have on prison populations. Immediately after the last lecture, a post-test is given to measure any attitude changes. Anticipating what the test is designed to measure (because of the lectures) those in the experimental group are subject to the threat of:
Which of the following would be an example of selection bias?
Inmates in an experiment at the state maximum security prison being moved to a minimum state prison
Which of the following would be an example of experimental mortality?
Diffusion or imitation of treatments
Sometimes it is not possible to separate subjects from experimental and control groups and the result is that they may discuss the research. What is the threat that this situation poses?
The subjects in the control group feel deprived of something they consider valuable
The threat to the internal validity of an experiment that is called compensatory treatment refers to which of the following situations?
You have just completed the LSAT and scored 112. Your roommate who is no smarter than you took the LSAT with you and scored 165. You were so upset with your score that you decided to take the test again and you convinced your roommate to take it with you for moral support. You both received scores on the second exam of 150. What accounted for the differences in scores?
Have control over the independent variable
The goal of the classical experiment is for the researcher to:
When neither the subjects nor the researcher can identify which group is the control group and which is the experimental group the design is said to be:
In criminal justice experiments, what serves as a guard against the effects of the experiments themselves as well as events that may occur outside the laboratory during the course of experiments?
The ability to apply findings to other populations
External validity in an experimental design refers to:
Dr. Smith was interested in whether there would be a reduction in the number of crimes in the central city once closed-circuit cameras went up and were monitored by police. To accomplish this study Dr. Smith looked at the police records for the four square block area where the cameras were installed each week for six months. Dr. Smith was using what method?
To assess the impact of child abuse upon later criminality, Dr. Rose chose to select some adults whose names appeared as child abuse victims in local police records and another group of adults who were not victims of abuse. What technique is being employed?
Clear and precise
In social scientific experiments, as in medical experiments, the danger of experimenter bias is further reduced to the extent that the operational definitions of the dependent variables are:
What type of design is illustrated in the following diagram?
Experimental Group 0 X 0
Control Group 0 0
Measurement time1 time2 time3
Experimental Group 0 X 0
Control Group 0 0
Measurement time1 time2 time3
Proper selection and assignment of subjects to groups
What can help rule out the threats to internal validity in an experimental design?
Shorten the time between the pretest and the posttest
What technique can be used to help reduce the threat to experimental mortality?
What process is accomplished by assigning the odd numbered subjects to the experimental group and the even-numbered subjects to the control group?
Consider using a quasi-experimental design
If randomization is not possible, what should the researcher do?
The central features of what experiment type include (1) independent and dependent variables, (2) pretesting and posttesting, and (3) experimental and control groups created through random assignment?
There is some date or event in common to all members of the control and the experimental groups
How does a cohort design differ from other quasi-experimental designs?
An interrupted time-series design can be very useful in what type of research?
Makes a long series of observations before and after introducing the experimental treatment
Which is accurate concerning the interrupted time-series design?
A questionnaire is sent to 1,000 police departments in Florida and gathers information on the number of sick days officers use after being involved in a shooting incident. This is an example of what type of research?
That there is an infinite variety of ways to design a study
The statement, ‘there are no simple formulas for designing an experimental or quasi-experimental study’ suggests:
Use random assignment
To guard against most threats to internal validity in the classical experiment the researcher should:
Non-equivalent-groups and time-series designs are two general types of quasi-experiments
Which of the following statements is true?
Control group (stimulus not present)
The classical experiment makes it possible to satisfy this criterion for cause in two ways. First, the posttest measures for the experimental group (stimulus present) are compared with those for the:
Observing a group who has similar cases in the court systems
Which of the following is not illustrative of the case study method?
Changes in the measurement process itself
In general, testing refers to changes in how subjects respond to measurement, whereas instrumentation is concerned with:
When it is not possible to create groups through randomization, what options do you have for the research design?
Proceed with the experiment because you can address the issues during your statistical analysis
In the case where the experimental groups and the control groups are not equivalent, which of the following should not be used to address this issue?
With regard to experimentation and subject selection, what does random assignment serve to eliminate?
Any study where the researchers know who is in the experimental and control groups but promise not to tell the subjects
All but which of the following are examples of double-blind studies?
The concern about the publication of the findings
One threat to internal validity in criminal justice research that is not very significant is
All the above
How can a researcher be sure that threats to internal validity are being ruled out in the design?
Do research in the natural setting
Which of the following would not be likely to impact a study’s external validity?
The research measured fear of crime by citizens before and after the cameras went up
In Martin Gill’s research on the effectiveness of CCTV projects in the UK, which of the following techniques did he use?
In a classical experiment the independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the _____________.
In a classical experiment the researcher uses a ____________________ to offset the effects of the experiment itself.
The mere fact that subjects know they are being studied can cause them to change their behavior. This phenomenon is known as the __________________________.
A(n) _________________________ experiment guards against experimenters’ tendency to prejudge results by eliminating the possibility of either the researcher or the subjects knowing which group is the control and which group is the experimental.
The main reason why ____________ is used to select subjects for control and experimental groups in a classical experiment is that the groups will be statistically equivalent.
_______________________ validity becomes an issue when findings are based on small samples of cases.
With respect to internal validity issues, testing refers to changes in how subjects respond to measurement while _____________ refers to changes in the measurement process itself.
When referring to whether results from experiments conducted in one setting would be obtained in other settings, our main concern is one of _______________________ validity.
When random assignment to experimental and control groups is not possible the researcher may be forced to use a(n) _______________________ design.
interrupted time-series design
Instead of making one pre-test and one post-test measure the _______________ makes a longer series of observations before and after introducing an experimental treatment.
When there is a study of a large number of variables that are associated with a small number of cases or subjects, the researcher is engaged in __________________________ research.
An example of variable-oriented research is the _________________ design.
Accidental spillover of an experimental stimulus to the control group is an example of treatment ___________________________.
Creaming, or skimming the best, risks off the top to be incorporated in an experiment, is a threat to _____________________ .
_____________________ refers to the ability to take findings from an experiment and apply them to the real world