Research methodology: Study on lower back pain
This chapter will be concentrate the method was used in this survey. This subdivision will be highlighted on:
- Study Design
- Population and Puting
- Sample Selection
- Type of Sampling
- Sample Size
- Inclusion and Inclusion Criteria
- Subjects Demographic Data
- Pressure Biofeedback Unit ( PBU )
- Active Knee Extension ( AKE )
- Data Collection Procedures
- Procedure Intervention
- Datas Analysis
- Ethical Consideration
3.1 Study Design
This survey is a descriptive, comparative survey design. A descriptive survey can be applied to depict a group of population based on their features ( Portney & A ; Watkins, 2009 ) . The description of topics in this survey was done through observation and study. A comparative survey was designed to research the differences between two groups of topics which were immature association football jocks in conventional school and school athletics. Participants were recruited from three different schools which include two conventional schools and one athletics schools.
3.2 Population and scene
This survey has been conducted to 104 participants either from sport school or conventional school. Young jocks were chosen because this period of age is prone to acquire hurt of low back hurting, particularly age of 12 to 14 old ages old ( Carmeli, Azencot, Wertheim, & A ; Coleman, 2003 ) . Within this continuance, the growing jet and development among child may take to injury include back hurting and within this scope of age, the kids seem to be physically really active ( Carmeli, Azencot, Wertheim, & A ; Coleman, 2003 ) . The male immature jocks were chosen in the survey as the male childs prone to wound in athletics engagement compared than misss ( DeHaven & A ; Lintner, n.d. ; Sahlin, 1990 ) .
This survey was started at the terminal of April 2013 and completed at the terminal of July 2014. That early month of October, participants recruited were from two different types of secondary school which is in standard schools and athletics schools. The standard schools chosen for this survey were SMK Meru and SMK Puncak Alam, meanwhile athletics schools chosen for this survey were SMK Seksyen 11.
3.3 Sample choice
3.3.1 Type of Sampling
Subjects selected by utilizing purposive sampling among association football jocks at SMK Meru, SMK Puncak Alam, and SMK Sekyen 11 Shah Alam. Purposive sampling means that research worker handpicks topics on the footing of specific standards ( Portney & A ; Watkins, 2009 ) . Two groups formed based on their type of school which is a sport school group and conventional school group. After the instructor indiscriminately handpick the topics from immature male association football athlete squad, the selected topics need to undergo physical fittingness trials to measure their degree of nucleus musculus strength.
3.3.2 Sample size
Sample sizes for this survey were determined utilizing the GPower 3 package. Based on the GPower 3 package computation with a power of 80 % and the consequence size of 0.5, the existent sample size is 102 topics ( with 51 topics in each group ) .
3.3.3 Inclusion standards
The inclusion criterias were needed to be fulfilled by the topics in order to be eligible to take part in this survey.
- Male pupils aged between 13 to 18 old ages old ( School of Malaysia Directory, 2013 ) .
- Either has or no history of lower limb or dorsum hurts ( Corkery et al, 2007 ) .
- Healthy and trouble free during the testing period ( Fourchet, Materne, Hudacek, & A ; Buchheit, 2013 ) .
- A topic who consented to take part ( Fourchet, Materne, Horobeanu, Hudacek, & A ; Buchheit, 2013 ) .
- An active association football participant ( Le Gall et Al, 2008 ) .
3.3.4 Exclusion standards
The topics will non eligible to take part in this survey if any exclusion standards present.
- Elite immature association football jocks ( Corkery et al, 2007 ) .
- Any old surgery of the lower appendages or low back ( Corkery et al, 2007 )
- Any recent hurt or pathology to the lower appendages or low back within last 6 months ( Corkery et al, 2007 ) .
- Any medicine or consumption of a substance that may do change of map in the sympathetic nervous system ( Corkery et al, 2007 ) .
3.4.1 Subjects Demographic Data
In this survey, subjects’ demographic informations will be obtained prior to subjects’ engagement. The information which including age, gender, race, organic structure mass index ( BMI ) and self reported medical history. This is to guarantee the topics will accommodate the inclusion standards and may besides assist in grouping of the topics. The information besides will be recorded in the informations aggregation signifier ( see Appendix 1 ) .
3.4.2 Pressure Biofeedback Unit ( PBU )
Instrument used in this is the force per unit area biofeedback unit ( PBU ) in order to mensurate the nucleus musculus strength which is cross abdominis ( TrA ) . Besides that, PBU is dependable and valid instrument to measure abdominal musculus which this instrument design to supervise lumbar stabilisation ( Cynn, Oh, Kwon, & A ; Yi, 2006 ) . The current grounds shows that PBU nowadays with moderate to good duplicability which intra-class correlativity coefficient ( ICC ) from 0.47 to 0.82 and PBU besides present with acceptable cogency, which the ICC from 0.48 to 0.90 ( Lima, Oliveira, Costa, & A ; Laurentino, 2011 ) . Another survey done by Garnier et Al. ( 2009 ) test-retest dependability with ICC of 0.81.
|PBU reading ( mmHg )||Duration of clasp ( secs )||Core strength position|
|& lt ; 60||& lt ; 10||Negative ( weak )|
|& gt ; 66||& lt ; 10|
|66-60||& gt ; 10||Positive ( strong )|
Lima et Al. ( 2012 ) .
Table 3.1 Core musculus strength classs based on the PBU reading and continuance of clasp TrA contraction
3.4.3 Active Knee Extension ( AKE )
This active articulatio genus extension ( AKE ) trial is dependable and normally used to measure the length of the hamstring musculus group ( Gabbe, Bennel, Wajswelner, & A ; Finch, 2004 ; Corkery et al. , 2007 ; Gajdosik & A ; Lusin, 1983 ) . Meanwhile, survey by Gajdosik, Rieck, Sullivan, & A ; Weightman ( 1993 ) has showed that the AKE trial extremely dependable due to fact that lower appendage is stabilized to restrict gesture at the hip. The process of this trial is started with the capable supine on a tabular array with contralateral hip and thigh strapped down for stableness and topic is placed into 90° knee flexure. For goniometer arrangement are ; axis – sidelong facet of articulatio genus through the centre of the joint line, stationary arm – analogue to the shaft of the thighbone and traveling arm – along the shaft of the calf bone in line with the sidelong malleolus. Then the topic is asked to actively widen the articulatio genus until an initial stretch was felt in the hamstring. The articulatio genus angle is measured when the patient felt the initial opposition in the hamstring.
3.6 Data Collection process
Data aggregation will be done in two yearss of survey probe in each school chosen. Participants were selected utilizing purposive sampling among immature association football jocks at SMK Meru, SMK Puncak Alam, and SMK Sekyen 11 Shah Alam. Purposive sampling means that research worker handpicks topics on the footing of specific standards.
Before commenced the survey, ethical permission from Educational Research Application System ( ERAS ) , Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor and Ethical Committee of Faculty of Health Science, UiTM Puncak Alam ( APPENDIX C ) were applied prior to the survey. Upon blessing, letters besides were posted to the school principals to acquire their permission for carry oning survey. Date besides was set between schools and research workers.
All participants had to undergo two yearss of survey probe in each school chosen. The possible participants via convenience sampling who volunteered to take part were invited to an information meeting, which was organized in the school. On the first twenty-four hours of the visit, participants received written and unwritten information about the survey, and they were emphasized that engagement was voluntary. Furthermore, participants were besides verbally briefed about the intent and process of the survey. Participants were allowed to inquire inquiries and they can decline to take portion from this survey without any punishment.
After that, capable information sheets and consent signifiers were distributed to the participants. Through consent signifier, they were asked to acquire consent from parents or defenders ( instructors or managers ) before participate in the survey. Then, participants had to make full the demographic informations questionnaire which includes points placing athlete’s general backgrounds, featuring histories, and sport hurt histories in order to test them for exclusion standards ( mention APPENDIX 1 ) .
On the 2nd twenty-four hours, the selected topics so underwent physical fittingness trials to measure their nucleus musculus strength. Prior to proving, subject’s tallness, organic structure weight, resting blood force per unit area and resting bosom rate were measured, and proving process began with a dynamic warm-up and stretching to minimise opportunity of hurt every bit good as promote optimum public presentation. After that, the subjects’ nucleus musculus strength was examined utilizing the force per unit area biofeedback ( PBU ) .
The consequence for each trial were recorded in a recording signifier ( mention APPENDIX 2 ) and the informations obtained were analyzed to compare the degree of physical fittingness between sport school and conventional school.
3.6Procedure of intercession
All the topics were required to have on proper outfit during the testing process and were advised non to take nutrient 2 hours before developing session. The topics besides were asked non to prosecute in any exercising throughout the survey period except light activities. Prior to proving, subject’s tallness, organic structure weight, resting blood force per unit area and resting bosom rate were measured, and proving process began with a dynamic warm-up and stretching for approximately 10 to 15 proceedingss to minimise opportunity of hurt every bit good as promote optimum public presentation. The warming-up involved mobilizing exercising of major articulations and musculuss. Then, the testing process for nucleus musculus strength utilizing force per unit area biofeedback unit ( PBU ) was explained and demonstrated to the participants.
In this survey, PBU was used to find the strength of transverse abdominis ( TrA ) musculus. If the topic has good strength of TrA musculus, she/he will able to cut down force per unit area of the bag 4 to 10 mmHg force per unit area recorded by force per unit area gage of PBU. The consequence is positive if the force per unit area decrease can be done at least 4 mmHg for 10 seconds from norm of test ( Lima et al. , 2012 ) ( table 3.1 ) . The topic needs to make three contraction of TrA musculus and each contraction demand to be hold for 10 seconds.The informations obtained is documented in entering signifier.
3.7 Statistic for informations analysis
Descriptive statistics were performed on demographic features, baseline and post-intervention consequences and informations were reported as agencies ( M )±standard divergences ( SD ) , frequence ( % ) which includes age, BMI, degree of competition, place in association football, LBP happening and nucleus musculus strength degree between immature association football jocks in athleticss school and conventional school. First, independent sample T- trial was used to happen the comparing of agencies difference nucleus musculus strength degree between immature association football jocks in athleticss school and conventional school. Second, Pearson product-moment correlativity will be carried out to cognize the association between the variable. Correlation was used at the relationship between two variables in a additive manner. However, a Pearson product-moment correlativity was used to happen correlativity between a uninterrupted and a categorical variable, In this survey, a Pearson product-moment correlativity was used to happen the correlativity of the nucleus musculus strength and twelvemonth of athletes’ engagement and besides for correlativity of nucleus musculus strength and hamstring flexibleness between immature association football jocks in sport school and conventional school.
The Chi-square trial and Fisher exact trial were applied to analyse the relationship of nucleus musculus strength and players’ place, competition degree between immature association football jocks in sport school and conventional school. Last but non least, this type of interferential statistic besides identifies relationship of nucleus musculus strength with low back hurting happening between immature association football jocks in sport school and conventional school. All statistical computations were completed utilizing the SPSS package ( version 20.0 ) . Degree of important differences was tested atP& lt ; 0.05
3.5 Ethical consideration
Prior to this survey, ethical permission from the Ministry of Education through on-line application of Educational Research Application System ( ERAS ) was obtained to acquire blessing of using school pupil as survey topics ( APPENDIX A ) . Following that, ethical permission from Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor was besides obtained to carry on the survey in schools at Selangor ( APPENDIX B ) . Afterwards, the blessing besides was obtained from Ethical Committee of Faculty of Health Science, UiTM Puncak Alam ( APPENDIX C ) . Each participant was assured of confidentiality and the option to retreat at any clip without punishment.