Research – Chapter 5

research problem
area of concern in which there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice; includes significance, background, and problem statement

research purpose
clear, concise statement of the specific goal or focus of the study

how is study feasibility evaluated?
examining researchers’ expertise; money commitment; availability of subjects, facilities, equipment; study’s ethical considerations

why are research objectives, questions or hypotheses formed?
to bridge the gap between the more abstractly stated research problem and purpose and the detailed quantitative design and data analysis

what is included in qualitative study?
problem, purpose, and research questions or aims to direct the study

formal statement of the expected relationships between two or more variables in a specified population in a quantitative or outcomes study

four categories of hypotheses
nondirectional vs directional; associative vs casual; simple vs complex; null vs research

qualities, properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that change or vary

independent variable
intervention or treatment that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable

dependent variable
response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to predict or explain

research variables
qualities, properties or characteristics that are observed or measured in descriptional or correlational studies

how is a variable operationalized
through development of conceptual and operational definitions

what does a conceptual definition provide
theoretical meaning of a variable

how is a conceptual definition derived
a theorists definition of a related concept

what do operational definitions indicate
how a treatment or independent variable will be implemented in qualitative research

what do research concepts include
ideas, experiences, situations, or events that are investigated in qualitative research

when are research concepts defined
during the conduct of a qualitative study

demographic variables
characteristics or attributers of the subjects that are collected and analyzed to describe the study sample

associative hypothesis
proposes relationships among variables that occur or exist together in the real world, so that when one variable changes the other changes

causal hypothesis
proposes a cause-and-effect interaction b/w two or more variables, which are referred to as independent and dependent variables

simple hypothesis
states relationship (associative or causal) b/w two variables

complex hypothesis
states relationship (associative or causal) b/w three or more variables

nondirectional hypothesis
states that a relationship does exist but does not predict the nature of the relationship

directional hypothesis
states the nature (positive or negative) of the interaction b/w two or more variables

null hypothesis (statistical hypothesis)
used for statistical testing and for interpreting statistical outcomes; it is the converse of the research hypothesis

research hypothesis
alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis and states that a relationship exists between two or more variables

testable hypothesis
hypothesis that clearly predicts the relationships among variables and contains variables that are measured or able to be manipulated in a study

extraneous variables
exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationship among variables; primarily of concern in quantitative studies because they can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within these studies

confounding variables
extraneous variables that are not recognized uuntil the study is in process or are recognized before the study is initiated but cannot be controlled

environmental variables
extraneous variables composing the setting in which the study is conducted

demographic variables
attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample; identified by the researcher when a proposal is developed for conducting a study (age, education, gender, race, marital status…)