Replication, Transcription and Translation Study Guide

Which Direction Does Replication Occur
Replication Occurs From a 5 Prime to 3 Prime Direction

First Step of DNA Replication
Helicase Uncoils The DNA

Second Step of DNA Replication
RNA Primase Adds Short Sequences of RNA to Both Strands

Third Step of DNA Replication
The Primer Allows DNA Polymerase III to Bind and Start Replication

Fourth Step of DNA Replication
DNA Polymerase III Adds Nucleotides to each Template Strand in a 5 Prime to 3 Prime Direction

Fifth Step of DNA Replication
The Nucleotides From The Previous Step Has Deoxyribonucleoside Triphosphates, However They Lose Two Phosphate Groups During the Replication Process to Release Energy

Sixth Step of DNA Replication
The Leading Strand is Replicated in a Continues Manner in the Same Direction as the Replication Fork

Seventh Step of DNA Replication
The Lagging Strand is Replicated in Okazaki Fragments, Away From the Replication Fork

Eighth Step of DNA Replication
DNA Polymerase I Removes the RNA Primers and Replaces Them With DNA

Ninth Step of DNA Replication
DNA Ligase Then Joins the Okozaki Fragments Together to Form a Continues Strand

Ligase is an Enzyme That Connects Two Fragments of DNA to Make a Single Fragment

Helicase is an Enzyme That Untwists and Unzips the Double Helix of DNA at the Replication Forks.

DNA Polymerase III
DNA Polymerase III is an Enzyme That Catalyzes The New DNA at The Replication Fork By Adding Nucleotides to the Existing Strand.

DNA Polymerase I
DNA Polymerase I Removes RNA Primers and Replaces Them With the New Nucleotides During the DNA replication.

Primase is an Enzyme That Joins RNA Nucleotides to Make a Primer.

RNA Polymerase
RNA Polymerase is an Enzyme That Binds to DNA and Separates the DNA Strands During Transcription.

Codons are Specific Sequences of Three Bases on a Strand of DNA or RNA That Provide Information To Code For a Specific Amino Acid.

Okozaki Fragments
Okozaki Fragments is a Short Part of The DNA Synthesized Away From the Replication Fork, in a 3 Prime to 5 Prime Direction, on a Template Strand During DNA replication.

Anti Codon
Anti Codons are a Group of Three Bases on a tRNA Molecule That are Complementary to an mRNA Codon.

Sense Strand
The Sense Strand of the DNA is the Part That has the Code for Various Proteins.

First Step of Translation
The tRNA Containing the Matching Anticodon to the Start Codon Binds to P Site of the Small Subunit of the Ribosome.

Second Step of Translation
The Small Subunit Binds to the 5 Prime End of the mRNA and Moves Along in a 5 Prime to 3 Prime Direction Until it Reaches the Start Codon.

Third Step of Translation
The larger Subunit Then Binds to the Smaller One.

Fourth Step of Translation
The Next tRNA With The Matching Anticodon to the Next Codon on the mRNA Binds to the A Site.

Fifth Step of Translation
The Amino Acids on the Two tRNA Molecules Form a Peptide Bond.

Sixth Step of Translation
The Larger Subunit Moves Forward Over the Smaller One.

Seventh Step of Translation
The Smaller Subunit Rejoins the Larger One, This Moves the Ribosome 3 Nucleotides Along the mRNA and Moves the First tRNA to the E Site to be Released.

Eighth Step of Translation
The second tRNA is Now at the P Site so That Another tRNA With the Matching Anticodon to the Codon on the mRNA Can Bind to the A Site.

Ninth Step of Translation
As the Eighth Step Continues, the Polypeptide is Elongated.

Tenth Step of Translation
Once the Ribosome Reaches the Stop Codon on the mRNA Translation Ends and the Polypeptide is Released.

Eleventh Step of Translation
Many Ribosomes Can Translate a Single mRNA at the Same Time, These Groups of Ribosomes are Called Polysomes.