Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Therapist Effectiveness: A Conceptualization and Initial Study of Cultural Competence
It is an established fact in psychotherapy practice that client racial/ethnic background is a variable in their health outcomes. As different racial/ethnic minority groups assimilate their own set of cultural values, it has a bearing on their psychological outlook. Their cultivated worldview, in turn, affects their response to psychotherapy. However, the unanswered question was whether the cultural competence of the therapist is in itself a key factor. It is this question that the research paper seeks to address.
The researchers identify and devise experiments to be conducted on adolescent cannabis users. The Bayesian multilevel model is the chosen method for the study. Two areas were evaluated: first, whether therapists differed in their overall effectiveness; second, whether treatment outcomes differed across therapist caseloads. Results suggest that both of these are true, answering the initial proposition that therapists display varying levels of cultural competence.
Termed the Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT), the researchers designed a large multisite trial. Care is taken to present a balanced racial/ethnic minority representation. Five different treatments for cannabis addiction were evaluated for their effectiveness and cost. The target population were adolescents with cannabis-related disorders who could be given outpatient care. In total, 600 adolescents were included in this 2-year long study.
The results vindicate the initial suspicion of the researchers that there is something distinctly called cultural competence that is exclusive of the therapist’s professional expertise. In other words, some therapists were more effective with ethnic minority clients even after adjusting for their general competence. It should also be mentioned that even those therapists who were languishing in their cultural competence handled some ethnic minority clients exceptionally well. So, cultural competence is not a generic indicator but an overall aggregate. The next logical area of inquiry for researchers is to examine the source of disparities in cultural competence and attendant treatment outcomes. They can endeavour to find how factors of clients’ identity, socioeconomic status, scholastic achievement, professional backgrounds, etc contribute to variability in treatment outcomes.
Imel, Zac E. Baldwin, Scott. Atkins David C. Owen, Jesse. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Therapist Effectiveness: A Conceptualization and Initial Study of Cultural Competence, Journal of Counselling Psychology, 2011, Vol. 58, No.3, pp. 290-298.
Negro by Langston Hughes is neither technically complex not metaphorically rich. Yet it strikes a powerful chord in the hearts of the reader, mainly on the back of its emotional appeal. The poem is an illustration of how simple words and easy historical references can be synthesized into powerful art. This essay will argue how the medium of poetry is employed by the poet in conveying one of the blights of human history, namely, black slavery.
A prominent theme in the poem is the comparison between the status of blacks then and now. Written from the point of view of an enslaved American black, the poem is full of comparisons with slave experiences from history. Bet it in King Caesar’s empire or under the Egyptian Pharaohs or as captives in native Africa or under the hands of Belgians in Congo, blacks have suffered great oppression throughout history. What more, slavery of blacks had occurred in different corners of the earth, under various political and social contexts.