Racial And Ethnic Inequalities Essay
There are diverse racial and ethnic groups in the world. Most countries constitute of more than one race or ethnic group. Numerous incidences of discrimination based on race or ethnicity continue to emerge with each passing day.
The US has a long history of racial discrimination causing inequalities in society. Some races consider themselves superior to the others and thus discriminate them. Ethnocentrism which refers to ‘ethnic superiority’ is the cause of ethnic stratification the whites have been socialized in a manner that shows they are superior to others.The blacks and Latino’s also feel isolated in the society. The whites believe that their culture should be adopted by the other races.
They do not appreciate other cultures but despise them. The dominant races need to interact with the minority in diverse areas. Each race or ethnic group constitutes a part of the nation and there is need for harmonious relationship. Areas in which they interact include politics, religion and daily running of the nation.
By performing their duties both races work for the benefit of all. For instance good leadership by a white will be beneficial to all despite their races.Conflict however arises when the dominant race tries to exploit the minority races for their own interests. The dominant races are politically, economically and socially advantaged compared to the minority races.
To maintain their status quo the dominant races can strive to do all they can to ensure that the minority races do not out do them. The gap between the dominant races and the minority continues to widen thus calling for government intervention. The minority races are referred to as the ‘third world’ of ‘the first world’ an act that undermines human rights dealing with equality despite color or language.Racial inequality produces social conflict as the minority groups try to establish their sense of identify in fighting for equality. Racial and ethnic inequality has been well portrayed in the media. Corporate runs the media and have the monopoly power, which they use as a tool to discriminate against the minority groups.
Inequalities are evident in the newsrooms and in the staffing too with a higher number of whites. (http://www. democracynow. org/article.
pl? sid=07/01/16/159222) Individuals and foundations have tried to counter this problem by training the minority in to managerial positions in journalism.This effort is however affected negatively by lack of finances. There has been a sluggish development in this and is evident in the fewer numbers of graduates. Stiff competition and job instability in the market also pose a big challenge to the few graduates.
Historically, people from the minority groups have been excluded or discriminated in job positions even when they are qualified. Exclusion from jobs in the media leads to misrepresentation, distortion and stereotypes which contribute to discrimination of the minority groups.Although inequality in income and resources should an incentive for people to work harder to achieve highly in society, ethnic inequality would lead to problems in society. (Farley, 79). The racial and ethnic inequality serves to benefit the dominant who exploit the minority races by paying them lesser wages. Selling harmful products to the minority, as is the case in cigarettes advertisements is an example of such exploitation.
Racial and ethnic inequality leads to different social, economic and political status in society. Races and ethnic groups form groupings.There is the acceptance of the minority races that they are the sub-ordinate groups and thus the racial label. The dominant races in the society exploit the minority consumers. Though cigarettes advertising had been banned in the 70’s the companies neglected that and started advertising cigarettes to the less educated, low-income earners and minority.
Increased cigarette smoking by the minorities due to increased advertisement would mean that their health is at stake. The government and taxpayers plays a vital role in sustaining the media.They could get subsidies like discounted postal rates or funded research into new technologies. The government also protects and regulates the media and deals with issues like copyright laws.
However, the overall benefits are not equally enjoyed due to misrepresentation in the media jobs. There is an overwhelming concentration of media ownership by a few giant firms who are whites. The situation is made worse by the fact that even the managers are whites. If this trend is not checked then the minority media owners will be phased out by competition from the might firms.Although the minority races constitute 30% of the total population in USA the proportion is likely to be higher in the next 50 years.
There is need that government policies are put in place so that then the minority population rise, they will not negatively affect the face of the media. (Stephen, 38) Blacks and other discriminated races should form associations to ensure their issues are well addressed. Increased ownership of the media companies by discriminated races will be a step up in increasing job opportunities for ‘their own’ in the media. (http://www. turnoffyourtv.
om/networks/media2007/bigmedia. html) Although most people see the need of eradicating racism they are unwilling to go the extra mile in eradicating it. Races discriminated are considered as outsiders, strangers or foreigners. Immigration contributes to racism as incoming people are considered ‘outsiders’. There is clear evidence of segregation of the poor African-American community in the U. S.
A. The gap between the whites and blacks in terms of their socio-economic status has continued to widen. Employment opportunities are more than twice available for the whites than for blacks.More blacks are under employed and lowly paid when compared to the whites. Even with the same skills, experience and education blacks earn lesser wages and salaries.
Discrimination is evident in both low skilled and high skilled positions. Even those blacks top position face some form of discrimination thus raising the question if they will ever be fully accepted in the society and more so in the power elite. Inequality is also seen in wealth distribution where blacks lag behind the whites. The disparity in wealth explains the disparity in their standards of living.Housing and its studies show that in the housing market discrimination is still evident.
Mobility in housing even with an upward movement along the social class is difficult for the blacks. This means that they will tend to live under certain conditions as different neighborhoods. Offer different services in terms of education facilities, health centers safety and recreational facilities Discrimination is also evident in the judicial systems where by more blacks are punished than whites. This is shown by their higher numbers in prisons and youths on probation.Whites who kill blacks are not punished severely compared to blacks who kill whites.
This sends a message that whites are superior to the whites. Different races work together for the benefit of the whole society. Despite the differences in orientation there are areas under which the all interact. There is need for all races and ethnic groups to come into consensus so that development of the nation is not affected.
The dominant races own large companies and continue to increase their profit at the expense of the minority races. Less education leads to ignorance and arrogance, this works for the benefit of the dominant races.Advertisers use the media to exploit the minority owned stations. This means that their revenues will be lower and their expansion will be limited.
Such advertisers will lead to unequal development. This acts as a hindrance to the development of the minority-based stations in the country. The white supremacy ideology forms the basis of racism in USA. The whites look at the world form their own perspectives and they think that their culture is superior to others. (Stephen, 40) Today the inequalities between races and ethnic groups still persist.
In schools the whites perceive themselves superior to the minority races calling for a lot of concern. For instance, the Jena incidence where the African youths were unfairly punished. There was evidence of bias in the way the judicial process was carried out. The effects of racism manifested today are indication that the legal system portrays some form of racial discrimination in its operations. Racial discrimination is still a serious social problem in the USA.
Even in the large U. S cities only a few residential areas are racially integrated. Minorities live in certain neighborhoods away form the whites.The per capita income of the minorities is lower than the white’s.
A large proportion of whites own their own homes as compared to the blacks who live on rental houses. Most people who live in the streets and go without food are from the minority races. Approximately 43% immigrants who are in most cases the minority races do not have medical insurance as compared to 12% whites who lack the same. The racial and ethnic inequality is portrayed in the way the two-access health care facilities. The minority races access to higher education is also lower compared to the whites.The unemployment rate of the minority is double that of the whites.
The minority race is highly represented in prisons and juveniles. There is an urgent need to address the discrimination based on races and ethnic groups. The minority races should keep fighting for their rights. Whites should be more accommodating and should not impose their ‘superiority’ feeling on the minority races. Advancing in their education the minority races will be able to match the whites in the job markets. The government should be strict on policies to ensure that equality is maintained in the nation.
If more judges were from minority races discrimination in the judicial system would be reduced. Minorities should invest and participate in the media markets as they will provide a channel under which the minorities will participates more in the media. The media portrays anti-social behaviour of the minority races for instance, gang violence, drug abuse and crime. This acts as a form of widening the gap between the two races. The media should stop perpetuating the historic disparities causing discrimination between the two races.
Stereotypes caused by the media portraying African-American youth as gangsters could be the reason behind their discrimination in jobs and should therefore come to a halt. Instead of using the media to create stereotypes that will lead to discrimination of the minority races the media should be the vessel that creates a harmonious nation where equality is a virtue embraced by every one. Families have a role to play as institutions of socialization. Parents need to teach their children as they grow that despite their color all people are equal.