quiz 1-4

is defined as the systematic study of the nature and behavior of the material and physical universe, based on observation, experiment, and measurement, and the formulation of laws to describe these facts in general terms.

Scientific method
The process that guides scientists to ensure integrity and objectivity as discoveries are made and hypotheses tested, leading to theory developed is called the __________ __________. (4 points)

is a working assumption; an untested explanation of how/why phenomena happen based on osbervation. (4 points)

A concept that explains existing observations and predicts new ones is called a __________. (4 points)

Scientific Law
__________ __________ is a basic principle that describes a specific behavior of nature that has a narrow scope and stated succinctly (e.g., mathematical equation). (4 points)

The study of the planet Earth – the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin, is called __________. (4 points)

__________ is the principle that states that physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past. “The present is the key to the past”. (4 points)

John Hutton
is known as the father of modern geology. (4 points)

4.6 billion years
What is the age of the Earth? (4 points)

law of superposition
The law that states layering of the sediments and volcanic lava flows is in the order of youngest layers at the top and older layers below. (4 points)

___________ are breaks in the rock record produced by erosion and (or) nondeposition of rock units. Always followed by subsidence and renewed deposition. (4 points)

1.3 billion years
With regard to radiometric dating, what is the half life of isotopes Potassium-40, the radioactive parent, to Argon-40, the stable daughter product? (4 points

Based on the Geologic Time Scale. What is the current Epoch we are living in today? (4 points)

Which planet in our solar system is tectonically active (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), has abundant liquid water, and has at atmosphere with moderate temperatures and active weather…..i.e., support human life? (4 points

The energy that drives the Earth system originates from both the Earth’s interior and the ____________.

compressional waves
___________ waves are able to propagate through liquids as well as solids and have been used to help determine the different layers in the Earth’s interior (4 points).

The layers crust, mantle, and core, are defined by the Earth’s __________. (4 points)

____________ properties define the following layers in the Earth’s interior: lithosphere, asthenosphere, transition zone, mesosphere, and the inner/outer cores. (4 points)

The __________ __________ is the boundary between the crust and mantle identified by a change in velocity of P waves which abruptly increase below the crust. (4 points)

Gutenberg Discontinuity
The core-mantle boundary formerly called the __________ __________ was discovered based on the observation that P waves die out at 105 degrees from an earthquake and reappear at about 140 degrees (35 degree-wide belt named the P-wave shadow zone). (4 points)

asthenosphere and mesosphere
________ and __________ are the two major parts of the mantle. (4 points)

The dominant element found in the outer and inner cores is __________ (4 points)

_________ is the strong, rigid layer that includes the crust and uppermost mantle. (4 points)

An __________ is the simplest kind of chemical that cannot be broken down further by ordinary chemical or physical processes. (4 points)

chemical compound
A combination of atoms of different elements bonded together is called a __________ __________. (4 points)

oxygen silicon
Which two elements are the most common in continental crust? (4 points

A __________ is naturally occurring, inorganic solid which possesses a definite internal structure, characteristic chemical composition. (4 points)

__________ is the most common mineral (after the feldspar group – potassium & plagioclase feldspars) in the Earth’s crust. (4 points)

feldspar group
_________ is the most common mineral group (> 50% of Earth’s crust). (4 points)

__________ is an aggregate of one or more minerals in varying proportions. (4 points)

__________ rocks are formed by changing preexisting igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks through increased heat and pressure without melting the rock. (4 points)

__________ rocks form from cooling and solidification of magma. (4 points)

__________ igneous rocks that cool slowly below the surface and have coarse-grained texture. (4 points)

Which mineral forms common salt? (4 points)

Which mineral is commonly used in wiring because it is a good electrical conductor (Hint: Utah’s state mineral)? (4 points)

___________ is defined as concept of floating crust in gravitational balance where less dense crust floats on top of the denser and deformable rocks of the mantle. (4 points).

Lake Bonneville
A local example in Utah of isostatic rebound is the adjustment associated with the drainage of water from prehistoric __________ __________. (4 points)

Continental Drift
________ _________ is the hypothesis that proposed the movement of continents that was the predecessor to the Theory of Plate Tectonics. (4 points)

Alfred Wegener
The author of the above hypothesis in Question 3 was _________ __________. (4 points)

What is the name of the large supercontinent that broke up approximately 200 million years ago (according to the Question 3 hypothesis). (4 points)

fit of the continents
LIST any ONE of the FOUR lines of evidence that the author used to support his hypothesis of continental drift. (4 points)

South America Africa
Which two continental coastlines (__________ __________ & __________) that fit together were used as evidence for continental drift?(4 points)

_________ is the fossilized fern found in all of the southern continents and considered proof that they were once joined. (4 points)

The freshwater reptiles, called __________, have been found in both South America and Africa. This reptile was not able to swim 5000 km across open ocean separating the two continents today. (4 points)

Appalachian Mountains
The __________ Mountains in the eastern United States are part of distinct rock types and geologic structures associated with equivalent mountain ranges found in Scotland and Norway. (4 points)

__________ deposits (used for producing electricity) found in the eastern US, Europe, and Siberia are paleoclimate evidence of extreme changes in climate as compared to present day conditions. This is further evidence for continental movement. (4 points)

Evidence of __________ in the Late Paleozoic(~300 mya) that covered large parts of the southern continents which are tropical, subtropical, desert, and temperate climates today, is another line of evidence supporting continental drift. (4 points)

(True/False) The main problem with the Continental Drift hypothesis which prevented it from being widely accepted was the lack of a probable mechanism that could explain how the continents moved. (4 points)

_________ provided new evidence that lithospheric plates move based on magnetic polar wandering.(4 points)

The __________ hypothesis developed by Harry Hess in the early 1960s provided the mechanism for plate motions based on mantle convection, rifting and volcanism along the mid-oceanic ridge system and the recycling of oceanic crust by subduction at convergent plate boundaries. (4 points)

geomagnetic reversals
The Vine-Matthews Hypothesis connected seafloor spreading with the discovery of __________ __________. (4 points)

At least _________ reversals have occurred in the last 4 million years. (4 points)

The oldest age of the sea floor based on magnetic reversals is approximately __________ million years. (4 points)

J. Tuzo Wilson provided the final piece needed to develop the Theory of Plate Tectonics, suggesting that large faults connected several large rigid __________ (4 points)

There are 3 basic types of plate boundaries: Transform, Divergent, and __________ plate boundaries (4 points)

plate tectonics
The Theory of _________ __________ describes how the lithosphere is broken into approximately 20 rigid, moving plates, which form three major types of plate boundaries (4 points).

The __________ Plate is the largest tectonic plate. (4 points)

North American, South American, Pacific, African, Eurasian, Australian-Indian, Antartic
LIST the name of the SEVEN major lithospheric plates (e.g., North American) that cover 94% of the Earth’s surface area. (4 points)

The average relative plate motion rate is _________ cm per year. (4 points)

Juan de Fuca
The __________ ____ _________ Plate is the intermediate-size tectonic plate (i.e., subplate) being subducted under the North American Plate in the Pacific Northwest. (4 points)

Which type of plate boundary caused by tensional forces is where new oceanic crust is produced? (4 points)

The Basin and Range Province is an example of __________ rifting. (4 points)

Subduction zones occur at __________ plate boundaries. (4 points)

The greatest earthquakes are generally associated with __________ plate boundaries. (4 points)

The higher __________ of the sinking oceanic plate is the main reason it is subducted under either the continental plate or younger oceanic plate. (4 points)

The Aleutian Islands are an example of a volcanic island arc produced by __________-__________ plate convergence. (4 points)

The Andes Mountains are an example of __________-__________ plate convergence. (4 points)

The Himalayas are an example of __________-__________ plate convergence.. (4 points)

_________ plate boundaries have dominantly horizontal movement as plates slide past each other, where the plate area remains constant – no new material created or destroyed (conservative plate margin). (4 points)

The San Andreas Fault is an example of a __________ plate boundary that cut across continental crust. (4 points)

age & thickness
Evidence supporting Plate Tectonics was acquired from OCEAN DRILLING (Deep Sea Drilling Project) and subsequent examination of ocean sediments. __________ & __________ were the TWO specific properties examined? (4 points)

hot spots and mantle plumes
What was the second line of evidence used to test Plate Tectonics (and ultimately support the theory)? Hint: Hawaii. (4 points)

hot spot “tracks”, paleomagnetism, measuring plate velocities from space
LIST the THREE lines of evidence used to document plate motions, supporting Plate Tectonics. (4 points)

10 cm/yr, northwest
Assuming hot spots are fixed (stationary) features, what is the RATE & DIRECTION of absolute plate motion of the Pacific Plate using the Hawaii hot spot, over the past 3 million years? (4 points)

After reconstructing plate motions, scientists determined that all the continents were assembled together approximately 237 million years ago. This land mass is called the Supercontinent __________. (4 points)

Which continental plate broke off from the Antartica Plate about 90 million years ago and migrated towards Eurasia over the next 70 million years, eventually colliding with Eurasia to form the Himilayas? (4 points)

convective flow
The basic driving force of tectonic plates is __________ __________ in the mantle. It is driven by the Earth’s internal heat engine. (4 points

Slab-Pull Ridge push
The major forces that DRIVE plate motion are __________-__________ and __________ __________. (4 points)

Layer cake model, whole-mantle convection
List the TWO MODELS of Plate-Mantle Convection. (4 points)

earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains
Distribution of __________, __________, and __________ is one of the THREE major reasons why Plate Tectonics is important and directly relates to the focus of this course. (4 points)

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