Qualitative Analyses

NH4+
Add NaOH(aq).
Heat over a candle flame.
Hold moist red litmus paper over solution (should turn blue)
Waft to smell gas (Smells like ammonium)
Al3+
Add NH3(aq).
A white precipitate should form and NOT dissolve
Zn2+
Add NH3(aq).
A white precipitate should form and dissolve
Na+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Golden Yellow” flame.
Cu2+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Blue-Green” flame.
Li+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Crimson” flame.
Ba2+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Yellow-Green” flame.
Sr2+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Orange-Red” flame.
Ca2+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Orange” flame.
K+
Use a flame test.
Should produce a “Violet” flame.
Cl-
Add AgNO3(aq) (A white precipitate should form)
Add NH3 (Precipitate should dissolve)
Br-
Add AgNO3(aq) (A cream coloured precipitate should form)
Get a new sample of the unknown liquid and add chlorine water and cyclohexane (The solution should turn Brown)
I-
Add AgNO3(aq) (A yellow precipitate should form)
Get a new sample of the unknown liquid and add chlorine water and cyclohexane (The solution should turn Pink)
(SO4)2-
Add HCl(aq) and BaCl2(aq). (A white precipitate should form)
(CO3)2-
Add HCL (Bubbles should form)
Hold a dropper containing limewater above the solution (The limewater should turn cloudy)
(NO3)-
Add FeSO4 and mix.
Add H2SO4. (A brown ring should form between the two layers)
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