Public Speaking Chapters 1-10, 13

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When your textbook describes public speaking as a form of empowerment, it means that public speaking is
a way to make a difference in something we care about.

How much time does the average adult spend in conversation?
about 30 percent of waking hours

The skills used in public speaking which are the same used in everyday conversation are: (3)
organizing your thoughts logically
tailoring your message to your audience.
adapting to listener feedback.

When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra , a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
adrenaline

Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into
positive nervousness.

You definitely shouldn’t do this to deal with nervousness in your speeches
focus on your stage fright

Is there a such thing as a perfect speech?
no

When should you think of your speech as an act of communication
to help deal with your nervousness

Research has shown that the anxiety level of most speakers drops off significantly when
they are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech.

visualization is the process of
a speaker is to create a vivid mental blueprint in which you see yourself succeeding in your speech; build confidence

Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts is a way
to help deal with your nervousness

Remember that your nervousness is not usually visible to your audience.
Concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on your nerves.
As you rehearse, visualize yourself giving a successful speech.
These are ways
to help deal with your nervousness

Visualize yourself giving a successful speech is a way
to help deal with your nervousness

when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright you should
focus on the positive aspects of your speech

Critical Thinking
Dealing with such matters as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion

frame of reference
you relate the speaker’s ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience

practicing the delivery of your speech
does not help strengthen your skills of a critical thinker

Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listener’s
frame of reference

feedback
audiences verbal and nonverbal responses

A listener anxious about an upcoming exam, worried about a recent argument with a friend, or distracted by cold air in the classroom would be experiencing
interference

Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else is termed the
message

The means by which a message is communicated is termed the
channel

The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one’s own culture or group as “right” or “natural” is called
ethnocentrism

the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures is termed
ethnocentrism

Speechmaking is a form of power and therefore carries with it heavy responsibilities
ethical

the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termed
ethics

Be honest in what you say, be fully prepared for each speech, and make sure your goals are ethically sound.
guidelines for ethical speechmaking

public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such language
demeans the dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked and undermines the right of all groups in the U.S. to express their ideas are

global plagiarism
takes a speech entirely from one source and passes it off as her or his own

incremental plagiarism
forgetting to cite any of your sources

patchwork plagiarism
occurs when a speaker copies word for word from two or three sources.

incremental plagiarism
occurs when the speech as a whole is ethical but the speaker fails to give credit for particular quotations and

listen attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and support free speech is guidelines for
ethical listening

ethical obligations of listeners
maintaining the free and open expression of ideas & being courteous and attentive during the speech

People spend more time than in any other communication activity
listening

Even when we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about percent of what we hear
50%

When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank number one
listening

empathic listening
listening to provide emotional support

appreciative listening
listening for pleasure as a friend

critical listening
when you listen to evaluate a speaker’s message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it

comprehensive listening
listening to understand the message

taking written notes while the speech is in progress is an example of
poor listening

jumping to conclusions is an example of
poor listening

first step to improving your listening skills
take listening seriously

Although most people speak at a rate of 125 to 150 words a minute, the brain can process words at a rate of
400-800 words/ min

skilled listening focus on three major aspects of a speech which are
main points.
evidence.
technique

Your textbook recommends as the most effective method of note taking for listening to a speech
making a key-word outline

brainstorming is good for
choosing a speech topic

After choosing a topic, what is the next step of speech preparation
determining the general purpose

using a subject-based search engines on the Internet is recommended in your textbook as one method of for a speech topic.
brainstorming

advocating
Is out of place in a speech to inform

When the general purpose of your speech is to , you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer
inform

When the general purpose of your speech is to , you act primarily as an advocate.
persuade

A specific purpose for a speech should be a
a full infinitive phrase

What is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?
formulating the specific purpose

A specific purpose should not be
broad/ general, use figurative language, an uncompleted sentence

central idea
central/unifying element in story

The primary purpose of speechmaking is to
gain a desired response from listeners

Seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common experiences and fears
identification

egocentric
To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are

What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
demographic and situational

What kind of audience analysis is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background?
demographic

What kind of audience analysis is size, and the audience attitude toward the topic?
situational

audience analysis usually builds on the demographic analysis
situational

As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more
formal

The will usually dictate how long a speech should be.
occasion

What element usually has the greatest impact on the length a speech should be?
the occasion for the speech

What are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a speech topic?
knowledge, interest, and attitude

The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they
produce clear, unambiguous answers.

When making up an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use questions to get at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings.
scale

A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n)
open-ended question

fixed-alternative question
If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn how many of your listeners had ever heard of something

fixed-alternative question
A type of question (or interrogative) that offers the listener a closed choice between two or more answers

The is the key to finding information in the library
catalog

The library’s catalogue allows you to search for books by
author, title, keyword

Periodical databases
catalog articles from a large number of journals and magazines & often provide abstracts of journal and magazine articles

reference works
Encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, gazetteers, and quotation books

A _______________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines.
periodical database

The two kinds of Internet search aids
search engines and virtual libraries

A is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
virtual libraries

As your textbook explains, the best kind of search aid for locating reliable, high quality information on the Internet is a
virtual libraries

According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and
recency.

What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?
authorship, sponsorship, and recency

If you can’t identify the author of a document on the Internet
try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document

When quoting an Internet document during a speech, a speaker should identify the
author or sponsoring organization responsible for the document.

The most important task when preparing to conduct a research interview is
devising questions to ask during the interview.

Preliminary bibliography
lists each source that looks as if it might be helpful in speech

Two major formats mentioned in your textbook for citing works
Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA)

What is the guideline for preparing a preliminary bibliography?
Write a brief note on why the source may be valuable for your speech

Using is the best way to pull listeners into your speeches
extended examples

The more your examples, the greater impact they are likely to have
vivid

Examples are especially helpful as supporting materials because they
personalize your ideas

combine examples with causal reasoning
is not good when providing examples

hypothetical example
an imaginary story that makes a general point

Accomplished speakers consider “the very life of the speech.”
examples

Research indicates that the impact of examples is greatly enhanced when they are combined with that show(s) the examples to be typical.
statistics

The main value of using statistics in a speech is to
quantify the speaker’s ideas

Avoiding using too many statistics
helps the impact of using statistics

representative statistic
the sample group surveyed accurately represents the group about whom a claim is being made

When you have complicated statistics you should
round them off

Using visual aids in a speech is a good way to
clarify statistical trends

The main value of using expert testimony in a speech is to
build the credibility of speakers who are not experts on their topics

To paraphrase is to
give the gist of someone’s statement in your own words

verbatim
word for word

Using expert testimony is an excellent way to lend to your speeches.
credibility

Don’t use statistics without
explaining them

Peer testimony
ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.

The is the longest and most important part of the speech.
body

what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?
It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.

most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and
audience

Chronological Organization
main points of a speech follow a time pattern

Spatial Organization
main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in

Which of the following organizational patterns is used more than any other method of speech organization because of its applicability to almost any subject?
topical

Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing speeches.
persuasive

Transition
Words or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another are called

While working on the body of your speech, you see the need to let the audience know what the upcoming subpoints will be
internal summary

signposts
brief statements that help listeners follow your ideas

Internal Preview
outlines the critical points to be made within the body of the speech

According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is
looking directly at the audience without saying a word.

What are the four basic objectives of a speech introduction?
reinforce the central idea & gain attention of the audience & reveal the topic & establish credibility and goodwill

A preview, credible, startling statement appears
in the speech introduction

When you advocate a highly unpopular position, it is particularly important to
in the introduction of your speech.
establish goodwill toward the audience

Creating goodwill is especially important in the introduction of a speech.
persuasive

When preparing a speech introduction, you should complete it
after the body of the speech

What percent should your conclusion be of your entire speech?
5% to 10%

All four methods of reinforcing the central idea can be combined in a single
conclusion

Which of the following does your textbook mention as a means of reinforcing the central idea in the conclusion of a speech?
end with a quotation, reinforce main idea, repeat intro

A statement to arouse curiosity should not be where in a speech?
conclusion

According to your textbook, when a speaker concludes a speech by fading out on an emotional note she or he is using a ending.
dissolve

According to your textbook, a ending is a conclusion that builds force until reaching a peak of power and intensity. (Martin Luther King Speech)
crescendo

To give the speech psychological unity
Refer back to your introduction in the conclusion

An appeal to action is most appropriate in the conclusion of a speech.
persuasive

An outline helps ensure that
ideas flow clearly from one to another

A bibliography should be included in an
preparation outline

Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are the
preparation outline and the speaking outline

According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
bibliography & a specific purpose statement & central idea & transitions

Directions for delivering the speech are not necessary in a outline.
preparation

According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written
before the text of the outline itself

In a preparation outline, main points should be positioned farthest to the
left

states main points and subpoints in full sentences
preparation outline

The main points in a preparation outline are
identified by
Roman numerals

Subpoints in a preparation outline are indicated by
capital letters

Subpoints in a preparation outline are written
in full sentences

A speech title should
attract the attention of the audience & be brief & suggest the main thrust of the speech

Both a preparation outline and a speaking outline should use a consistent pattern of
symbolization and indentation

According to your textbook, the main reason to keep a speaking outline brief is to
help the speaker maintain eye contact with the audience

A outline includes the quotations a speaker plans to use
speaking

In a speaking outline, subpoints are identified by
capital letters

What outline contains delivery cues?
speaking

In a speaking outline, the conclusion should be labeled as a
separate part of the speech

The use of a visual aid can (2)
enhances the clarity of the speaker’s message &can help combat the speaker’s stage fright

One should keep visual aids .
simple

If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is a
model

When using color in a visual aid, you should utilize color to highlight
key points

When making a multimedia presentation, you should
be prepared to give your speech even if the equipment malfunctions.

To be used effectively as visual aids, photographs should be
bigger than ordinary enlargements

are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patterns
graphs

A graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns.
pie

A graph is best suited for showing comparisons between two or more items.
bar

If you wanted to summarize the steps of a process in a speech, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a
chart

A graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space.
line

According to your textbook, when selecting fonts for a visual aid you should usually use no more than
two fonts

Avoid using the to present visual aids
chalkboard

Visual aids are most effective when they are part of a speaker’s
rehearsal process.

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