Public Speaking Chapter 13

Nonverbal Communication
Communication based on a person’s use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words

Manuscript Speech
A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience. Often used in situations that require absolute accuracy of wording or that impose strict time limits upon the speaker.

Impromptu Speech
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation. When making this speech you should try to remain calm, maintain strong eye contact, speak at a clear, deliberate pace, and to use signposts to help the audience keep track to of the main ideas.

Extemporaneous Speech
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.

Conversational Quality
Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed.

Volume
The loudness or softness of the speaker’s voice

Pitch
The highness or lowness of the speaker’s voice. The faster the sound waves vibrate the higher their ____; the slower they vibrate the lower their ____.

Inflections
Changes in pitch or tone of a speaker’s voice.

Monotone
A constant pitch or tone of voice.

Rate
The speed at which a person speaks.

Pause
A momentary break in a the vocal delivery of a speech

Vocalized Pause
A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as “uh,” “er,” and “um.”

Vocal Variety
Changes in a speaker’s rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness. Speakers who possess strong ____ ____ come across as lively, dynamic, and communicative.

Pronunciation
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language. Such as saying the word genuine as gen-u-win.

Articulation
The physical production of particular speech sounds. Such as saying “ought to” rather than “otta,” or “don’t know” rather than “dunno.”

Dialect
A variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary. The U.S. has four major _____s: Eastern, New England, Southern, and General American.

Kinesics
The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.

Gestures
Motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during a speech.

Eye Contact
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.

Memorized Speech
A speech recited from memory. When doing this, the speaker should learn their speech so thoroughly that he/she can concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on remembering specific words.

Four steps to organize thoughts quickly
1. You should state the point to which you are responding
2. You should state the point you want to make
3. You should use whatever support you have (examples, statistics, or testimony) to prove your point
4. You should summarize your point.

Advantages to speaking extemporaneously
1. It gives greater control over ideas and language than impromptu delivery.
2. It allows for greater spontaneity and directness than memorized or manuscript delivery.
3. It encourages conversational vocal qualities, natural gestures, and strong eye contact.

Steps to improve speech delivery
1. Go over his/her preparation outline out loud.
2. Prepare a speaking outline
3. Practice the speech aloud several times using only the speaking outline
4. Polish and refine delivery
5. Give the speech a dress rehearsal under conditions as close as possible to those he/she will face during the actual speech.
6. Speakers must start early in order for this to be effective.

Four aspects of physical action
These are especially important to public speakers
1. Personal appearance
2. Movement
3. Gestures
4. Eye contact

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