Public Health 100

The costs of public health measures are easier to calculate than are the benefits
The costs of public health measures are easier to calculate then are the benefits.
Which of the following statements best expresses the market justice view?
Every adult individual is responsible for his or her own lot in life.
Which of the following measures could be considered primarily an attempt to legislate morality?
Laws against homosexuality.
The lesson of the “tragedy of the commons” for public health is that:
Under some circumstances, individuals in a community may profit by agreeing as a group to limit each other’s freedom to act.
Restricting individual freedoms for public health purposes is unconstitutional t/f
False.
Which of the following statements best expresses the social justice view of public health?
Members of a community have collective responsibility for their common welfare.
Which of the following measures is most likely to have negative a well as positive results for public health?
Banning pesticide use in the agriculture industry.
Restocking the legal drinking age in the US to 21 is an example of:
Paternalism.
Which of the following measures to limit freedom of adults in the name of public health has not been taken by the U.S. or state governments?
Laws against smoking cigarettes.
Which of the following activities is not part of the CDC’s responsibilities?
Conduct research on the basic physiology of diseases.
Which governmental organization is the main assessment and epidemiologic agency for the nation?
CDC
The U.S. Constitution specifically authorized the federal government to do which of the following activities relevant to public health?
Tax and spend.
Which of the following is not part of the FDA’s responsibilities?
Conduct research on basic physiology of diseases.
T/F: the federal government sometimes used the interstate commerce provision of the constitution to protect the health of the population.
True
Which of the following carries out core public health functions, such as sanitation?
Local public health agencies
The level of government that, according to the Constitution, has the primary responsibility for the health of the population is:
State
T/F: legislatures do not have the power to restrict the actions of public health agencies.
False.
Which of the following activities is not part of the NIH’s responsibilities?
Control the spread of infectious diseases.
Which agency is not part of the Department of Health and Human Services?
EPA
Seat belt laws are an example of:
Secondary prevention
Primary prevention refers to:
Prevention of exposure to risk factors.
Public health focuses on ____ of disease and ____ of health.
Prevention, promotion.
T/F: people’s behavior is strongly influenced by their social environment.
True.
Public health measures that contribute most to people being healthier today than they were a century ago are:
Sanitation,better nutrition, and occupational safety.
Epidemiology is part of what function of public health?
Assessment.
Enforcing laws and regulations falls under which core function of public health?
Assurance.
Vaccines are an example of:
Primary prevention.
The core functions of public health are:
Assessment, policy development, and assurance.
T/F: public health focused on populations, whereas medicine focused on individuals.
True.
From an epidemiologic perspective, which of the following is not true of chronic diseases?
They are more likely to be fatal than infectious diseases.
Which of the following statements was not a finding of the British Doctors Study?
Deaths from lung cancer were higher in urban areas than rural areas.
Which of the following statements is true of heart disease?
Moderate alcohol consumption protects against heart disease.
Which of the following statements is not true of the Farmingham Heart Study?
It found that it is normal and healthy for blood pressure to rise with age.
Which of the following is not true of epidemiology?
It is primarily an experimental science.
The Framingham Study identified all of the following risk factors for heart disease except:
Exercise.
T/F: routine data collected by the British Government enabled Snow to recognize the cause of Cholera
True.
The main purpose of epidemiologic surveillance is:
To recognize when an outbreak is occurring so that control measures may be instituted.
John Snow is called the father of modern epidemiology because:
He was the first to use epidemiology by recognizing a natural experiment was occurring.
T/F: epidemiologic data can be used to directly develop policy and influence population health.
True.
When epidemiologists are called on to investigate an outbreak of an infectious disease, what is the first thing they must do?
Agree on a case definition.
Researchers want to identify the impact of cholesterol on the development of heart disease. They follow individuals who are vegan, vegetarian, and meat eaters for 10 years and they record if any of them experience a heart attack. What kind of epidemiologic study is this?
Cohort.
International comparisons of cancer mortality Rae suggest that which of the following factors account for differences among the countries in colon and rectum cancer?
Diet.
An epidemiologist investigating an outbreak of encephalitis in NYC reports that there have been 17 new cases this week. Which of the following terms best described the number he reports.
Incidence of encephalitis.
What term correctly fills in the blank in the following sentence: smoking is a(n)____ of lung cancer.
Determinant.
An epidemic curve illustrated which of the following questions of disease distribution?
When.
The Nurses’ health study is what kind of study?
Cohort.
The New York State Health Department reported in ’97 that the death rate of aids in the state had fallen over the past year due to the efficacy of the new drugs. What happened to the prevalence of HIV infections?
Increased.
The Long Island Breast Cancer tested the hypothesis that environmental pollution was causing the relatively high rates of breast cancer among residents of Suffolk and Nassau counties of New York. Epidemiologists identified a group of 1,420 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1984-86 and compared their residential histories over a 20 year period with those of a matched group of healthy women. What kind of epidemiologic study is this?
Case-control.
Which of the following is a common source of error in a large randomized controlled trial?
Subjects do not adhere to the prescribed regimen.
What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
A committee that ensures studies are well designed and ethical.
In a case-control study that found an association between breast cancer and air pollution, 500 women who had recently been diagnosed were asked what industries were within a mile of their home twenty years ago. The controls were 500 healthy women. What is most likely the source of error in this study?
Reporting Bias.
Which of the following has been proven effective as a treatment for the disease indicated?
Penicillin for Cypriots.
Which of the following is a common source of error in a small epidemiologic study?
Random variation.
Which of the following is a common source of error in a large cohort study?
Confounding Variable.
Which of the following is a common source of error in a large case control study?
Subjects do not remember their past exposure.
To avoid false positives in a screening program to detect pregnancy, a test must be:
Highly specific.
The both rate of a population in the US will be affected by all of the following except:
Death rate of the population
A low p-value means:
There is a low probability that the result occurred by chance.
The death rate in Florida is higher than the death in Alaska because:
The Florida population is older.
Which of the following is the definition of the birth rate?
The number of live births per 1,000 people.
Which of the following statements is true about risk assessment?
It includes a judgment of the probability that a harmful event will occur.
A concept used as a measure of premature mortality is:
YPLL (years of potential life lost)
Which of the following causes of death has had the greatest impact on YPLL?
Suicide
If you want to compare death rates in two cities with populations that are different from one another with respect to age, you should compare:
Age adjusted death rates.
To avoid false negatives in a screening program to detect breast cancer among women over 50 years of age, the test must be:
Highly sensitive.
Which of the following statements is not true of the U.S. census
The census has ways of checking on the accuracy of the individual forms filed.
Which of the following statements is not true about data relevant to infant mortality?
Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant less than 6 months old.
All of the following categories of people are likely to be missed in the census except:
Lawyers
Data is collected on all of the following events as part of vital statistics except:
Hospitalizations.
Which of the following statements is true of the BRFSS?
The data is self reported by the individuals who are interviewed.
Which of the following vital statistics records are linked to give additional public health information.
Births and infant deaths.
Which of the following pieces of data is not part of the vital statistics system?
Cancer diagnoses.
Census data can be used for all of the following purposes except:
To track trends in illegal immigration.
The National Center for Health Statistics is part of which of the following agencies:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
T/F: smallpox is the only virus to be eradicated worldwide
True b
Which of the following diseases is not considered eradicable?
Rabies.
Which of the following diseases is caused by a virus?
Smallpox.
Which of the following diseases is caused by bacteria?
Typhoid.
Which of the following diseases can be successfully treated with antibiotics?
Typhoid b
Which of the following statements about infectious diseases is true?
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens.
Scientists believe that all of the following are responsible for the emergence of new infections except:
Immunization campaigns.
T/F: The flu vaccine must be changed every year based on specific strains that are circulating worldwide.
True.
T/F: people infected with a prion can be easily treated.
False.
All of the following viruses that originated in animals spreads readily among humans except;
Monkeypox
HIV cannot be transmitted by which of the following routes?
Donating Blood.
In an HIV+ person, exposure to which of the following can lead to HIV transmission?
Breast milk.
Which of the following bacteria had a reservoir in water towers used for air conditioning?
Legionnaire’s disease.
With which of the following diseases would you be most likely to be infected if you were stuck in an elevator for several hours with a patient suffering from the disease?
Tuberculosis.
Which of the following practices does not contribute to widespread antibiotic resistance?
Patients taking a full course of antibiotics.
Which of the following practices is not effective in preventing HIV transmission?
Immunization.
Three core functions of public health.
1. Assessment.
2. Policy development
3. Assurance.
Primary prevention
Prevents an illness from occurring at all through prevention of exposure to risk factors.
Secondary prevention
Seeks to minimize the effects of the effects of the illness or injury once it has already occurred.
Tertiary prevention.
Seeks to minimize disability through medic care or rehab.
Public health controversy
1. Economic impact not always good
2. Can provoke moral or religious objections
3. May have to sacrifice some personal freedom for greater good.
3 reasons for police power to be enforced:
1. To prevent a person from harming others.
2. Defend interests of incompetent persons
3. Protect a person from harming them self.
The CDC, NIH, and FDA are all under what organization?
Department of health and human services.
What was the name of the famous heart disease study that started in the 50’s and what kind of study was it?
Framingham study, cohort study.
Shoeless her epidemiology:
On the ground epidemiology, like detective work.
Endemic and epidemic.
Endemic is expected levels of the disease for a certain population. Epidemic is a sudden and significant increase in disease occurrence.
Case control
It starts with people that are already sick and looks back at their past to find out how they got it.
Incidence rate
The number of new cases in a defined population at risk over a defined period of time.
Prevalence rate.
The number did exist in cases in a defined population at a single point in time.
3 most common epidemiologic studies.
1. Intervention
2. Cohort
3. Case control
Name the 4 links in a disease.
1. Pathogen.
2. Reservoir.
3. Transmission.
4. Susceptible host.
3 different Types of bacteria.
Bacilli (cholera), cocci (pneumonia), spirochete (cyphilis)
4 theories of disease causation from the 19th century?
Contagion (person to person contact), personal behavior,
Supernatural,
Bad smell theory (miasma)
Demographic transition
The transition from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rates as country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Epidemiologic transition.
A phase of development witnessed by sudden or start increase in population growth rates brought about by medical innovation in disease or sickness therapy and treatment
Write an equation using the terms below to give us a way to measure population growth
Crude birth rate – crude death rate = rate of natural increase
5 diseases that are bacterial.
Typhoid, tuberculosis, cyphilis, cholera, lymes disease.
5 viral
Polio, measles, HIV/AIDS, mumps, rabies.
Parasitic (5)
Malaria, tapeworm, roundworm, guinea worm, scabies.
Vector born
Malaria, Lyme disease, yellow fever, west Nile, dengue fever