Psychology: from Inquiry to Understanding: Chapter 2
Surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus.
Mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world.
Watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation.
Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings.
Extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences from a study.
Research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period.
Demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur.
Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
Consistency of Measurement
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure.
Tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items.
Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated.
Grouping of points on a two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person’s data.
Perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists.
Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation.
In an experiment, the group of participants that doesn’t receive the manipulation.
Variable that an experimenter manipulates.
Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect.
A working definition of what a researcher is measuring.
Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement.
Unaware of whether one is in the experimental group or control group.
Experimenter Expectancy Effect
Phenomenon in which researchers’ hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study.
When neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the experimental or control group.
Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypothesis.
Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate.
Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data.
Numerical characterizations that describe data.
Measure of the “central” scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster.
Average; a measure of central tendency
Middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency
Most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency.
Measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are.
Difference between the highest and lowest scores; a measure of variability.
Measure of variability that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean.
Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population.