Considered the Father of modern psychology; study of mental processes, introspection, and self-exam; established the first psychology laboratory in Germany
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook – The Principles of Psychology
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
emphasizes that people learn by observing the behavior of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviors to influence events in their lives
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a description of an experimental variable in such a way that the variable can be measured and the procedure can be replicated
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
A group of research methods, including naturalistic observation, surveys, and correlational studies, that yield descriptions of the observed phenomena.
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
A research method involving the collection of data by carefully watching and recording behaviour as it occurs.
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering
procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
a nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other increases OR one variable decreases as the other decreases. Both variables move in the same direction.
coefficient of correlation
a statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
variable that is changed in an experiment
the variable that is measured in an experiment
in an experiment, the group that does not receive treatment
in an experiment, the group that receives treatment