Psychology Exit Exam

Wilhelm Wundt
Considered the Father of modern psychology; study of mental processes, introspection, and self-exam; established the first psychology laboratory in Germany

a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

William James
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook – The Principles of Psychology

Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.

the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

social-cognitive learning
emphasizes that people learn by observing the behavior of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviors to influence events in their lives

cognitive perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition
a description of an experimental variable in such a way that the variable can be measured and the procedure can be replicated

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

scientific method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

descriptive methods
A group of research methods, including naturalistic observation, surveys, and correlational studies, that yield descriptions of the observed phenomena.

case study
research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants

observational studies
A research method involving the collection of data by carefully watching and recording behaviour as it occurs.

naturalistic observation
research method in which the psychologist observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering

psychological tests
procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values

the extent to which a test yields consistent results

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

Research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions

representative sample
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole

correlational study
a nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables

negative correlation
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases

positive correlation
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other increases OR one variable decreases as the other decreases. Both variables move in the same direction.

coefficient of correlation
a statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

independent variable
variable that is changed in an experiment

dependent variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment

control group
in an experiment, the group that does not receive treatment

experimental group
in an experiment, the group that receives treatment