Psychology Exam Two

Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was “anxious.” Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was “falling in love.” The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by the
A. catharsis hypothesis.
B. relative deprivation principle.
C. two-factor theory.
D. James-Lange theory.
C. two-factor theory.

Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble”?
A. William James
B. Stanley Schachter
C. Walter Cannon
D. Richard Lazarus
A. William James

People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives
A. dominate consciousness.
B. shorten homeostasis.
C. increase basal metabolic rate.
D. trigger a state of flow.
A. dominate consciousness.

Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often reduce people’s subjective experience of intense anxiety. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining this effect?
A. Schachter-Singer
B. two-factor
C. James-Lange
D. Cannon-Bard
D. Cannon-Bard

People’s preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively salty tastes are ________.
A. learned; universal
B. incentives; needs
C. needs; incentives
D. universal; learned
D. universal; learned

It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the
A. relative deprivation principle.
B. evolutionary perspective.
C. two-factor theory.
D. adaptation-level phenomenon.
B. evolutionary perspective.

Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?
A. $1000
B. threat of punishment
C. smell of popcorn
D. dehydration
D. dehydration

When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ________ nervous system.
A. central
B. parasympathetic
C. sympathetic
D. somatic
B. parasympathetic

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.
A. before; after
B. after; at the same time as
C. at the same time as; after
D. before; before
B. after; at the same time as

Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their
A. self-reported emotions.
B. changes in heart rate.
C. facial expressions of emotion.
D. changes in respiration.
C. facial expressions of emotion.

Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the
A. hypothalamus.
B. cerebellum.
C. cortex.
D. thalamus.
C. cortex.

People are most likely to dislike the taste of ________ foods.
A. starchy
B. salty
C. novel
D. familiar
C. novel

Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the
A. prefrontal cortex.
B. amygdala.
C. thalamus.
D. hypothalamus.
A. prefrontal cortex.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
A. homeostatic mechanism.
B. drive.
C. incentive.
D. instinct.
D. instinct.

The relative risk of death among healthy nonsmokers is highest for
A. underweight men.
B. overweight men.
C. underweight women.
D. overweight women.
B. overweight men.

Adventurous people who relish the pursuit of novel and intense experiences are said to be
A. sensation-seekers.
B. self-transcendent.
C. instinct-driven.
D. self-actualized.
A. sensation-seekers.

When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M’s, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving spoon. This most clearly reflects
A. neophobia.
B. halo errors.
C. unit bias.
D. social facilitation.
C. unit bias.

Thaddeus will play a violin solo at his school tomorrow. His musical performance is likely to be ________ if his physiological arousal during the performance is ________.
A. best; very low
B. best; very high
C. worst; moderate
D. best; moderate
D. best; moderate

A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the
A. telomere.
B. hypothalamus.
C. anterior cingulate cortex.
D. insula.
D. insula.

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
A. a drive.
B. basal metabolic rate.
C. an instinct.
D. the set point.
A. a drive.

Destruction of an appetite-suppressing area within the hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to
A. cause the rat to become extremely fat.
B. increase the rat’s basal metabolic rate.
C. lower the rat’s set point for body weight.
D. lower the rat’s blood insulin levels.
A. cause the rat to become extremely fat.

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and
A. drive reduction.
B. set point.
C. biological predispositions.
D. basal metabolic rate.
A. drive reduction.

Eating food more ________ leads to eating less food. This is especially true for ________.
A. slowly; men
B. rapidly; women
C. slowly; women
D. rapidly; men
A. slowly; men

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called
A. drives.
B. needs.
C. set points.
D. incentives.
D. incentives.

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called
A. spontaneous remission.
B. the facial feedback effect.
C. the spillover effect.
D. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
B. the facial feedback effect.

Maureen is an introvert, who prefers staying in and reading a good book. Her friend Paula is an extrovert, who would much rather spend her time partying. In terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion and express emotions,
A. Paula is better at recognition and Maureen is more expressive.
B. Both are equally expressive but neither is good at recognition.
C. Both are equally good at recognition but neither is very expressive.
D. Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive
D. Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive

Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetically predisposed behaviors?
A. drive-reduction theory
B. arousal theory
C. instinct theory
D. hierarchy of needs theory
C. instinct theory

Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports the
A. adaptation-level principle.
B. Cannon-Bard theory.
C. James-Lange theory.
D. catharsis hypothesis.
C. James-Lange theory.

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?
A. “Accompany your diet with a sustained exercise program.”
B. “Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”
C. “Minimize your exposure to tempting foods.”
D. “Don’t eat your meals with friends who are not on a diet.”
B. “Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”

Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the
A. cerebellum.
B. hippocampus.
C. hypothalamus.
D. amygdala.
D. amygdala.

The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called
A. social facilitation.
B. unit bias.
C. self-transcendence.
D. homeostasis.
A. social facilitation.

When an organism’s weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n)
A. increase in hunger and a decrease in basal metabolic rate.
B. increase in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
C. decrease in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
D. decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.
D. decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.

Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?
A. instinct theory
B. arousal theory
C. set point theory
D. drive-reduction theory
A. instinct theory

People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of
A. boredom.
B. surprise.
C. happiness.
D. anger.
D. anger.

For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to
A. maintain homeostasis.
B. lower the set point.
C. reduce the incentives.
D. reduce blood glucose levels.
A. maintain homeostasis.

Most recent participants reported feeling more happy than sad after rubberbands secured to the sides of their faces were stretched over the tops of their heads. Their reactions best illustrated
A. the spillover effect.
B. the adaptation-level principle.
C. the facial feedback effect.
D. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
C. the facial feedback effect.

When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
A. decreases in respiration rate.
B. increases in salivation.
C. decreases in blood sugar levels.
D. slowing of digestion.
D. slowing of digestion.

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
A. heart rate
B. subjective well-being
C. cognitive activity
D. physiological arousal
C. cognitive activity

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.
A. the spillover effect
B. the adaptation-level phenomenon
C. relative deprivation
D. tones of voice
D. tones of voice

The basic components of emotion are
A. physical gestures, facial expressions, and psychological drives.
B. sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic inhibition, and cognitive labeling.
C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.
D. cognition, affect, and behavior.
C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will
A. have a lower set point for body weight.
B. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
C. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.
D. have increased blood glucose levels.
B. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

A. the expression of emotion reduces our level of physiological arousal.
B. an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the subjective experience of emotion.
C. to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the emotion.
D. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

D. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Appetite-stimulating hormones and appetite-suppressing hormones are secreted by different neural centers within the
A. arcuate nucleus.
B. hippocampus.
C. amygdala.
D. frontal lobes
A. arcuate nucleus.

The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by
A. Walter Cannon and Philip Bard.
B. William James and Carl Lange.
C. Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer.
D. Robert Zajonc and Richard Lazarus.
C. Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer.

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
A. decreases respiration and increases salivation.
B. increases respiration and decreases salivation.
C. decreases respiration and decreases salivation.
D. increases respiration and increases salivation.
B. increases respiration and decreases salivation.

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates
A. unit bias.
B. the settling point.
C. social facilitation.
D. homeostasis.
A. unit bias.

A polygraph examination of a suspected murderer included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description of the victim’s clothing and death wounds—details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the crime. The investigators were using the
A. facial feedback effect.
B. guilty knowledge test.
C. adaptation-level phenomenon.
D. catharsis hypothesis.
B. guilty knowledge test.

Without any conscious effort, your ________ prepares you to fight or flee from dangerous situations.
A. hippocampus
B. frontal cortex
C. autonomic nervous system
D. spinal cord
C. autonomic nervous system

In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body’s other appetite hormones.
A. hippocampus
B. amygdala
C. hypothalamus
D. cerebellum
C. hypothalamus

According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to

A. a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
B. a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.
C. anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
D. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

D. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter’s accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter’s accomplice?
A. those who were asked to run in place after receiving the injection
B. those who were promised a large sum of money for participating in the experiment
C. those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused
D. those who were led to think the injection would produce no physiological arousal
C. those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused

The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of
A. incentives.
B. homeostasis.
C. arousal.
D. instincts.
A. incentives.

Orexin is a ________ hormone secreted by the ________.
A. hunger-arousing; hypothalamus
B. hunger-arousing; stomach
C. hunger-suppressing; stomach
D. hunger-suppressing; hypothalamus
A. hunger-arousing; hypothalamus

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

A. discrimination.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. classical conditioning.
D. observational learning.

C. classical conditioning.

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-interval
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-ratio
D. variable-interval
B. variable-ratio

B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
A. positive reinforcement and punishment.
B. shaping and immediate reinforcement.
C. continuous reinforcement and latent learning.
D. observational learning and spontaneous recovery.
B. shaping and immediate reinforcement.

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company’s profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of
A. operant conditioning.
B. latent learning.
C. classical conditioning.
D. spontaneous recovery
A. operant conditioning

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. observational learning.
C. operant conditioning.
D. respondent behavior.
C. operant conditioning.

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha’s skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
A. observational learning
B. classical conditioning
C. operant conditioning
D. negative reinforcement
B. classical conditioning

To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
A. negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers.
B. classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning.
C. partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement.
D. immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
D. immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
A.
Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning in infants.
B. Bandura’s findings on observational learning and aggression in children.
C. Pavlov’s findings on the conditioned salivary response.
D. Garcia and Koelling’s findings on taste aversion in rats.
D. Garcia and Koelling’s findings on taste aversion in rats.

A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.
A. modeling
B. generalization
C. shaping
D. delayed reinforcement
C. shaping

A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to
A. latent learning.
B. intrinsic motivation.
C. classical conditioning.
D. operant conditioning.
D. operant conditioning.

The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called
A. classical conditioning.
B. partial reinforcement.
C. shaping.
D. cognitive learning.
D. cognitive learning.

Some students study hard beginning with the first couple of weeks of a semester because they subsequently receive very good final course grades. This best illustrates that human behavior is influenced by
A. primary reinforcers.
B. latent learning.
C. classical conditioning.
D. delayed reinforcers.
D. delayed reinforcers.

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
A. the law of effect.
B. respondent behavior.
C. latent learning.
D. spontaneous recovery.
A. the law of effect.

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
A. reinforcement; punishment
B. primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
C. immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
D. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
D. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a ________ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
A. CR; UR
B. UR; CR
C. US; CS
D. CS; US
D. CS; US

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
A. latent learning.
B. partial reinforcement.
C. extrinsic motivation.
D. delayed reinforcers.
C. extrinsic motivation.

A partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that occurs after an unpredictable period of time is a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-ratio
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-interval
D. variable-interval
D. variable-interval

The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.
A. generalization
B. discrimination
C. shaping
D. cognitive processes
D. cognitive processes

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A. positive reinforcer.
B. unconditioned stimulus.
C. negative reinforcer.
D. conditioned stimulus.
C. negative reinforcer.

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
A. continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
B. secondary reinforcement followed by primary reinforcement.
C. primary reinforcement followed by secondary reinforcement.
D. partial reinforcement followed by continuous reinforcement.
A. continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
A. latent learning.
B. modeling.
C. intrinsic motivation.
D. shaping.
D. shaping.

Primary reinforcers could best be described as
A. innately satisfying stimuli.
B. cognitive maps.
C. conditioned stimuli.
D. conditioned reinforcers.
A. innately satisfying stimuli.

John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether
A. worker productivity is influenced by hourly wage rates.
B. aggressive behavior is influenced by threats of punishment.
C. academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.
D. consumer buying habits are influenced by newspaper advertisements.
C. academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.
A. negative
B. conditioned
C. intermittent
D. delayed
C. intermittent

Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n)
A. discrimination.
B. stimulus.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. conditioned reinforcement.
B. stimulus

Taking away the driver’s license of a reckless teen driver is intended to serve as a
A. negative punishment.
B. positive reinforcement.
C. positive punishment.
D. negative reinforcement.
A. negative punishment.

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
A. predicts
B. inhibits
C. causes
D. is unrelated to
A. predicts

A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
A. discrimination.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. extinction.
D. spontaneous recovery.
A. discrimination

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A. US; UR
B. CS; UR
C. UR; CR
D. CS; US
D. CS; US

Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits.
A. cognitive processes
B. biological predispositions
C. spontaneous recovery
D. primary reinforcers
A. cognitive processes

A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-interval
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-ratio
D. variable-interval
B. variable-ratio

Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri’s behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George’s behavior was a reflection of ________.
A. an unconditioned response; a conditioned response
B. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
C. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
D. a fixed-interval schedule; a variable-interval schedule
C. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits
A. unjustified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.
B. justified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm.
C. unjustified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm.
D. justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.
D. justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to
A. be more inhibited about personally starting a fight on the school playground.
B. perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.
C.
the pain and injury experienced by victims of violent crime.
D. react with a sense of distress at the sight of two children fighting on the school playground.
B. perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe

Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
A. clapping after a thrilling concert performance
B. playing jump rope
C. running through a maze to get a food reward
D. sweating in hot weather
D. sweating in hot weather

Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. cognitive processes.
C. conditioned reinforcers.
D. respondent behavior.
B. cognitive processes.

The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
A. secondary reinforcement.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. higher-order conditioning.
D. generalization.
B. spontaneous recovery.

Comedian-writer Mark Malkoff reported that his fear of flying faded after he faced his fear and lived on an airplane for 30 days. His reduction of fear best illustrated the process of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. secondary reforcement.
C. cognitive learning.
D. extinction.
D. extinction

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are
A. violent or antisocial.
B. followed by reinforcement.
C. extrinsically motivated.
D. conditioned responses.
B. followed by reinforcement.

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. discrimination.
C. extinction.
D. generalization.
C. extinction.

Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason’s running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
A. partial
B. positive
C. negative
D. conditioned
C. negative

A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
A. unpredictable number of responses has been made.
B. specified time period has elapsed.
C. unpredictable time period has elapsed.
D. specified number of responses has been made.
B. specified time period has elapsed.

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
A. operant conditioning.
B. respondent behavior.
C. observational learning.
D. spontaneous recovery.
C. observational learning

A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)
A. immediate reinforcer.
B. primary reinforcer.
C. unconditioned stimulus.
D. conditioned stimulus.
D. conditioned stimulus

In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
A. salivation to the sound of a tone.
B. salivation to the food in the mouth.
C. a tone.
D. the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
D. the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.

The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers.
A. primary
B. negative
C. positive
D. conditioned
A. primary

When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should
A. threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums.
B. offer to buy the snack food Hakim wants only if he quiets down and behaves himself.
C. return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves.
D. continue shopping while ignoring Hakim’s tantrums.
D. continue shopping while ignoring Hakim’s tantrums.

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
A. intermittent reinforcement.
B. discrimination.
C. higher-order conditioning.
D. spontaneous recovery.
B. discrimination.

A psychologist who emphasizes cognitive processes would be likely to suggest that classical conditioning depends on
A. how frequently an organism is exposed to an association of a CS and a US.
B. an organism’s expectation that a US will follow a CS.
C. the amount of time between the presentation of the CS and the US.
D. an organism’s behavior in response to environmental stimulation.
B. an organism’s expectation that a US will follow a CS.

The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction
A. the CR is eliminated.
B. the CS is eliminated.
C. the CS is suppressed.
D. the CR is suppressed.
D. the CR is suppressed.

Psychologists define learning as the process of
A. acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors.
B. adapting to the environment.
C. responding to external stimuli.
D. reinforcing behavioral responses.
A. acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors.

Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is
A. positive punishment.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. negative punishment.
D. positive reinforcement.
A. positive punishment.

Watson and Rayner’s study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
A. can be used as negative reinforcers.
B. may be produced through classical conditioning.
C. are acquired through observational learning.
D. can interfere with the process of learning.
B. may be produced through classical conditioning.

Alex thinks smoking is addictive, but other players on his hockey team insist that it’s not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue.
B. there are very few team members whom he currently wants to befriend.
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.
D. there is obvious disagreement among team players regarding the issue.
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.

The fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others’ behavior is influenced by
A. personality traits.
B. their level of motivation.
C. genetics.
D. assigned roles.
D. assigned roles.

We are NOT likely to make the fundamental attribution error if we observe someone
A. in a variety of situations.
B. who is wealthy.
C. we dislike.
D. who is unemployed.
A.
in a variety of situations.

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
A. the two-factor theory
B. cognitive dissonance theory
C. social exchange theory
D. scapegoat theory
B. cognitive dissonance theory

Deindividuation refers to
A. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
B. the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior.
C. the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
D. lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
A. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the
A. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
B. fundamental attribution error.
C. frustration-aggression principle.
D. mere exposure effect.
A. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of
A. the social-responsibility norm.
B. deindividuation.
C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
D. the fundamental attribution error.
C. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among
A. men in cultures that value individualism.
B. men in cultures that value collectivism.
C. women in cultures that value individualism.
D. women in cultures that value collectivism.
A. men in cultures that value individualism.

Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
A. social loafing.
B. peripheral route persuasion.
C. conformity.
D. the reciprocity norm.
C. conformity.

Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates
A. normative social influence.
B. cognitive dissonance.
C. central route persuasion.
D. social facilitation.
C. central route persuasion.

Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of
A. deindividuation.
B. group polarization.
C. social facilitation.
D. the fundamental attribution error.
B. group polarization.

Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be
A. sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.
B. in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.
C. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
D. convinced that the death penalty should be retained.
C. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because
A. an increasing familiarity with novel stimuli facilitates liking.
B. group discussion enhances whatever attitude is initially dominant in a group.
C. arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks.
D. the loss of self-restraint often accompanies arousal and anonymity.
C. arousal inhibits the correct performance of difficult tasks.

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to
A. write an essay supporting a position they didn’t believe in.
B. deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.
C. play the role of the prison guards.
D. participate in a team tug-of-war by pulling on a rope as hard as they could.
B. deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
A. superordinate goals
B. dispositional attributions
C. norms and roles
D. belief-based feelings
D. belief-based feelings

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
A. groupthink.
B. deindividuation.
C. the bystander effect.
D. the mere exposure effect.
A. groupthink.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
A. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
B. the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.
C. people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive.
D. people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.
A. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

Hearing someone reading a neutral text in a happy-sounding voice is most likely to trigger
A. social loafing.
B. group polarization.
C. deindividuation.
D. mood contagion.
D. mood contagion.

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
A. team membership on social loafing.
B. role playing on attitudes.
C. self-disclosure on conciliation.
D. frustration on aggression.
B. role playing on attitudes.

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.
A. personality traits; situational constraints
B. situational constraints; personality traits
C. normative influence; informational influence
D. informational influence; normative influence
A. personality traits; situational constraints

Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella’s public conformity to her classmates’ opinion best illustrates the power of
A. normative social influence.
B. social facilitation.
C. informational social influence.
D. deindividuation.
A. normative social influence.

Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal of the defendant in a murder trial. To influence the majority he should
A. express some uncertainty about his position.
B. be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint.
C. address his arguments specifically to the member of the majority who seems most disagreeable.
D. be the last member to speak and present his argument as briefly as possible.
B. be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint.

Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister’s wedding to avoid his family’s disapproval. Kentaro’s behavior exemplifies the importance of
A. informational social influence.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. normative social influence.
D. social facilitation.
C. normative social influence.

A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts’ critiques of her company’s developing plans is most likely to inhibit
A. social facilitation.
B. groupthink.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. superordinate goals.
B. groupthink.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
A. cognitive dissonance.
B. social loafing.
C. implicit prejudice.
D. deindividuation.
A. cognitive dissonance.

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
A. “To proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opinions of all group members.”
B. “Do any of you see any potential problem with our group’s position?”
C. “As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue.”
D. “We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue.”
D. “We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue.”

Whether a person exercises regularly is best predicted by his or her attitude about
A. physical health.
B. exercise.
C. social loafing.
D. sports training.
B. exercise.

We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates
A. the mere exposure effect.
B. mirror-image perceptions.
C. the reciprocity norm.
D. mood linkage.
D. mood linkage.

The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by
A. the tragic murder of Kitty Genovese just outside her New York apartment.
B. the increased number of suicides shortly after Marilyn Monroe’s highly publicized death.
C. President John F. Kennedy’s ill-fated decision to invade Cuba.
D. the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.
D. the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

Carol is restless during class because her professor’s distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol’s restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of
A. group polarization.
B. deindividuation.
C. the mere exposure effect.
D. the fundamental attribution error.
D. the fundamental attribution error.

Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because
A. he was not given enough time to complete the test.
B. his parents had an argument the evening before the test.
C. the test covered material that had not been adequately covered in class.
D. he is unmotivated to do well in school.
D. he is unmotivated to do well in school.

Attribution theory was designed to account for
A. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.
B. how people explain others’ behavior.
C. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.
D. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.
B. how people explain others’ behavior.

Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?
A. social facilitation
B. cognitive dissonance
C. self-disclosure
D. group polarization
D. group polarization

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
A. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
B. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
C. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
D. lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.
B. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

By enabling like-minded White supremacists to pool their ideas, Internet social networking sites are likely to contribute to
A. social loafing.
B. the bystander effect.
C. social facilitation.
D. group polarization.
D. group polarization.

A person’s behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when
A. the attitudes are discrepant with most other people’s opinions.
B. the attitudes are implicit rather than explicit.
C. the person has not publicly communicated those attitudes.
D. external influences on behavior are minimal.
D. external influences on behavior are minimal.

Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among
A. factory workers paid on the basis of individual level of productivity.
B. students who are each assigned a different topic for their course term papers.
C. a group of runners competing for first place in a race.
D. audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.
D. audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
A. visual perception.
B. altruism.
C. learning.
D. aggression.
A. visual perception.

A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates
A. the bystander effect.
B. social loafing.
C. group polarization.
D. deindividuation.
C. group polarization.

The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to attribute a stranger’s
A. friendliness to social role requirements.
B. act of kindness to a compassionate personality.
C. criminal behavior to a poor education.
D. lack of employment to a weak economy.
B. act of kindness to a compassionate personality.

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________.
A. the poor; the rich
B. political conservatives; political liberals
C. women; men
D. social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists
B. political conservatives; political liberals

Fernando’s favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
A. cognitive dissonance
B. social exchange
C. the two-factor
D. scapegoat
A. cognitive dissonance

Observing yourself on a video replay is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to
A. personality traits.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. role playing.
D. social norms.
A. personality traits.

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because the
A. “learners” made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances.
B. “learners” obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest.
C. “teachers” actually enjoyed shocking another person.
D. “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
D. “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines
A. even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment.
B. only when members of the group were friends prior to the experiment.
C. only when the group was composed of at least six members.
D. even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.
D. even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
A. social exchange theory
B. the two-factor theory
C. scapegoat theory
D. cognitive dissonance theory
D. cognitive dissonance theory

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.
A. social facilitation
B. mirror-image perceptions
C. role playing
D. deindividuation
C. role playing

Blindfolded university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
A. social loafing.
B. social facilitation.
C. group polarization.
D. the chameleon effect.
A. social loafing.

The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
A. the MMPI.
B. factor analysis.
C. free association.
D. projective tests.
B. factor analysis.

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
A. external locus of control.
B. fixation.
C. self-serving bias.
D. the spotlight effect.
D. the spotlight effect

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
A. adequate clothing; self-esteem
B. love; food
C. self-actualization; friendship
D. political freedom; economic security
A. adequate clothing; self-esteem

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
A. we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily.
B. our heart rate is slow and steady, while our breathing is highly irregular.
C. our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
D. it leads to highly imaginative dreams that are perceived as colorless images.
C. our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

People at one Swedish supermarket were invited to taste two markedly different jams and then pick their preferred jam to retaste. Fooled by trick jars, they readily explained their jam preference without realizing that they had actually retasted their nonpreferred jam. Their failure to notice anything odd best illustrated
A. dual processing.
B. the pop-out phenomenon.
C. choice blindness.
D. selective attention.
C. choice blindness.

Night terrors typically occur
A. following sleep apnea.
B. during REM sleep.
C. among older adults.
D. during NREM-3 sleep.
D. during NREM-3 sleep.

Studies of college students’ conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.
A. unconditional positive regard
B. reciprocal determinism
C. personality traits
D. repression
C. personality traits

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
A. generalization.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. discrimination.
D. cognitive learning.
A. generalization.

Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that
A. sometimes emotion precedes cognition.
B. the two-factor theory of emotion is essentially correct.
C. our thoughts are not influenced by our emotional states.
D. our normal feelings of love and anger are typically irrational.
A. sometimes emotion precedes cognition.

The Eysencks believed that extraversion and emotionality are
A. genetically influenced.
B. aspects of self-esteem.
C. psychosexual stages.
D. reciprocal determinants.
A. genetically influenced.

When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the remaining stomach then produces much less
A. insulin.
B. ghrelin.
C. PYY.
D. orexin.
B. ghrelin.

Particularly among men, sleep apnea is linked with
A. night terrors.
B. hallucinations.
C. narcolepsy.
D. obesity.
D. obesity.

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
A. developmental psychology
B. social psychology
C. personality psychology
D. clinical psychology
B. social psychology

Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.
A. decrease; increase
B. increase; decrease
C. have no effect on; decrease
D. decrease; decrease
B. increase; decrease

The right prefrontal cortex is more active than the left prefrontal cortex when people experience
A. disgust.
B. joy.
C. pride.
D. love.
A. disgust.

Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of
A. sleep apnea.
B. the circadian rhythm.
C. sleep paralysis.
D. narcolepsy.
B. the circadian rhythm.

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
A. fixed-interval schedule.
B. cognitive map.
C. law of effect.
D. discriminative stimulus.
B. cognitive map.

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm’s contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
A. discrimination.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. acquisition.
D. generalization.
C. acquisition.

Basal metabolic rate is the body’s resting rate of
A. energy expenditure.
B. insulin secretion.
C. drive reduction.
D. homeostasis.
A. energy expenditure.

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. generalization.
C. secondary reinforcement.
D. stimulus predictability.
B. generalization.

Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to
A. occur simultaneously on several tracks.
B. occur slowly.
C. be limited in capacity.
D. contribute to effective problem solving.
A. occur simultaneously on several tracks.

Imitating another person’s facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate
A. the catharsis of aggressive feelings.
B. parasympathetic nervous system activity.
C. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D. empathy.
D. empathy.

Which of the following terms is used to describe the study of 15 positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling communities?
A. a biopsychosocial perspective
B. unconditioned positive regard
C. self-actualization
D. positive psychology
D. positive psychology

The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of
A. shaping.
B. extrinsic motivation.
C. online testing.
D. latent learning.
D. latent learning.

Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by
A. liver.
B. hypothalamus.
C. pancreas.
D. stomach.
C. pancreas.

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. observational learning.
C. associative learning.
D. operant conditioning.
C. associative learning.

If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
A. overestimate; overestimate
B. underestimate; overestimate
C. overestimate; underestimate
D. underestimate; underestimate
A. overestimate; overestimate

A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves distinct stages is known as
A. narcolepsy.
B. sleep.
C. manifest dreaming.
D. the circadian rhythm.
B. sleep.

Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior.
A. pleasant; aversive
B. aversive; pleasant
C. aversive; aversive
D. pleasant; pleasant
B. aversive; pleasant

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
A. prosocial behavior.
B. operant conditioning.
C. observational learning.
D. respondent behavior.
C. observational learning.

Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that
A. an excess of personal freedom decreases life satisfaction.
B. individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.
C. world events are largely controlled by a few powerful people.
D. self-control grows permanently weaker with exercise.
B. individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. latent learning.
C. respondent behavior.
D. the law of effect.
D. the law of effect.

Neural activity that reenacts and promotes recall of prior novel experiences is most closely associated with
A. slow-wave sleep.
B. sleep spindles.
C. hypnagogic sensations.
D. REM sleep.
A. slow-wave sleep.

A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
A. CS.
B. US.
C. CR.
D. UR.
A. CS.

Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
A. extraversion.
B. openness.
C. neuroticism.
D. conscientiousness.
B. openness.

In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
A. conditioned stimulus.
B. conditioned response.
C. unconditioned response.
D. unconditioned stimulus.
D. unconditioned stimulus.

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
A. extrinsic motivation.
B. delayed reinforcers.
C. partial reinforcement.
D. latent learning.
A. extrinsic motivation.

Lack of body fluids is to cold water as ________ is to ________.
A. homeostasis; basal metabolic rate
B. need; drive
C. need; incentive
D. instinct; set point
C. need; incentive

Research on sleep patterns indicates that
A. older adults and newborns have very similar sleep patterns.
B. sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.
C. different sleep patterns reflect differences in latent dream content.
D. everyone needs a minimum of 8 hours of sleep per night to function well.
B. sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.

Social-cognitive theories are LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
A. environmental influences.
B. genetic influences.
C. personality traits.
D. unconscious motives.
A. environmental influences.

Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna’s heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is
A. dreaming.
B. exhibiting a sleep spindle.
C. emitting delta waves.
D. experiencing a night terror.
A. dreaming.

Compared with when they were only 20 years old, 60-year-olds
A. spend less time in deep sleep.
B. spend more time in paradoxical sleep.
C. complete the sleep cycle more slowly.
D. spend less time in NREM-1 sleep.
A. spend less time in deep sleep.

Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
A. intrinsic motivation
B. cognitive processes
C. secondary reinforcers
D. biological predispositions
B. cognitive processes

Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-interval
B. fixed-ratio
C. variable-interval
D. variable-ratio
D. variable-ratio

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as
A. a physical need that usually triggers motivational arousal.
B. the body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
C. an aroused tension state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
D. a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of an entire species.
B. the body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

The absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin has been linked to
A. night terrors.
B. sleep apnea.
C. narcolepsy.
D. insomnia.
C. narcolepsy.

The use of physical punishment may
A. lead to the suppression but not the forgetting of undesirable behavior.
B. model aggression as a way of coping with problems.
C. lead people to fear and avoid the punishing agent.
D. have all of these results.
D. have all of these results

Test performance is typically ________ when physiological arousal is ________.
A. worst; moderate
B. best; moderate
C. best; very low
D. best; very high
B. best; moderate

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
A. latent learning.
B. generalization.
C. modeling.
D. shaping.
D. shaping.

In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by ________ theories.
A. trait
B. psychoanalytic
C. social-cognitive
D. humanistic
C. social-cognitive

A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in introverts.
A. addictive cravings; more
B. restraining behavior; less
C. aggression; more
D. empathy; less
B. restraining behavior; less

A dieter whose weight falls below his or her set point is likely to experience a(n)
A. decrease in hunger and an increase in metabolic rate.
B. increase in hunger and an increase in metabolic rate.
C. decrease in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.
D. increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.
D. increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which a person
A. has difficulty falling and staying asleep.
B. experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
C. temporarily stops breathing during sleep.
D. has sudden uncontrollable seizures.
B. experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

Compared with European-American students, Asian-American students express a somewhat greater ________ about their future performance, which may help to explain their impressive academic achievements.
A. unconditional positive regard
B. false consensus effect
C. pessimism
D. self-serving bias
C. pessimism

Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
A. self-serving bias.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. the false consensus effect.
D. an external locus of control.
D. an external locus of control.

When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M’s, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving spoon. This most clearly reflects
A. halo errors.
B. social facilitation.
C. neophobia.
D. unit bias.
D. unit bias.

Professional athletes perform better before an audience than when alone. This best illustrates
A. group polarization.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. the bystander effect.
D. social facilitation.
D. social facilitation.

Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?
A. automatic mimicry
B. social facilitation
C. mirror-image perceptions
D. the bystander effect
A. automatic mimicry

Throughout a National Football League season, fans of all teams guessed on average (across teams and weeks) that their own team stood about a 2 in 3 chance of winning their next game. This best illustrated
A. an external locus of control.
B. illusory optimism.
C. positive psychology.
D. the spotlight effect.
B. illusory optimism.

Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate’s performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual’s
A. general feelings of optimism about the future.
B. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
C. specific political goals for the future.
D. current feelings of personal control.
B. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

Inattentional blindness is best described as a by-product of
A. daydreaming.
B. selective attention.
C. parallel processing.
D. blindsight.
B. selective attention.

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called
A. incentives.
B. needs.
C. drives.
D. set points.
A. incentives.

A person is able to accurately point to the current location of certain moving objects that she is unable to consciously see. This best illustrates
A. the visual action track.
B. the pop-out phenomenon.
C. selective attention.
D. blindsight.
D. blindsight.

When working an occasional night shift, people often feel groggiest in the middle of the night but experience new energy around the time they normally would wake up. This best illustrates the impact of
A. sleep spindles.
B. the circadian rhythm.
C. REM rebound.
D. alpha waves.
B. the circadian rhythm.

According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to
A. a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
B. a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.
C. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
D. anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
C. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal

Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Allport is to ________
A. humanistic
B. trait
C. social-cognitive
D. behavioral
B. trait

A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.
A. likely; likely
B. likely; unlikely
C. unlikely; likely
D. unlikely; unlikely
A. likely; likely

A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a
A. projection.
B. self-concept.
C. trait.
D. fixation.
C. trait.

Which of the following research findings would be consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
A. Facial expressions of emotion inhibit the conscious experience of emotion.
B. Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.
C. People with spinal cord injuries experience a considerable increase in the intensity of their angry feelings.
D. All of these statements are consistent with the James-Lange theory.
B. Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions

Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
A. observational learning.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. immediate reinforcement.
D. shaping.
A. observational learning.

Given an obese parent, boys are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity.
A. decreased; decreased
B. decreased; increased
C. increased; decreased
D. increased; increased
D. increased; increased

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term
A. homeostasis.
B. basal metabolic rate.
C. flow.
D. settling point.
D. settling point.

The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
A. the mere exposure effect.
B. social facilitation.
C. group polarization.
D. ingroup bias.
C. group polarization

A child’s learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
A. unconditioned response.
B. conditioned response.
C. unconditioned stimulus.
D. conditioned stimulus.
B. conditioned response.

The set point is
A. the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
B. the point at which hunger-arousing and hunger-suppressing hormones are equal.
C. the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit in humans.
D. the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal.
A. the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of
A. fixation.
B. factor analysis.
C. personal control.
D. free association.
C. personal control.

Exposure to bright light causes the
A. pineal gland to increase the production of melatonin.
B. thyroid gland to increase the production of melatonin.
C. thyroid gland to decrease the production of melatonin.
D. pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.
D. pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

Which of the following animals tend to sleep the least?
A. giraffes
B. bats
C. dolphins
D. cats
A. giraffes

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
A. lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.
B. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
D. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
D. perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that
A. an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the subjective experience of emotion.
B. to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the emotion.
C. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.
D. the expression of emotion reduces our level of physiological arousal.
C. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. cognitive processes.
C. negative reinforcement.
D. shaping.
B. cognitive processes.

Arguments as to whether people’s behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the
A. self-serving bias.
B. person-situation controversy.
C. psychoanalytic perspective.
D. biopsychosocial approach.
B. person-situation controversy.

Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family’s breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)
A. negative reinforcer.
B. unconditioned response.
C. conditioned response.
D. positive reinforcer.
D. positive reinforcer.

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
A. learned helplessness.
B. an inferiority complex.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. an internal locus of control.
A. learned helplessness.

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
A. shaping
B. operant behavior
C. respondent behavior
D. immediate reinforcement
C. respondent behavior

Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. free association.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. an exertion of energy.
D. an exertion of energy.

Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn’t perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates
A. choice blindness.
B. dual processing.
C. selective attention.
D. the pop-out phenomenon.
C. selective attention.

Professor Wang is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. Other committee members want to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Wang personally disagrees, but he will probably vote in favor of their plan if
A. the committee votes by private ballot.
B. the other committee members are all in favor of the plan.
C. he states his personal opinion early in the committee’s discussion.
D. he has a high level of self-esteem.
B.
the other committee members are all in favor of the plan.

Adventurous people who relish the pursuit of novel and intense experiences are said to be
A. instinct-driven.
B. self-transcendent.
C. sensation-seekers.
D. self-actualized.
C. sensation-seekers.

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel’s mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys’ behavior?
A. classical conditioning
B. observational learning
C. delayed reinforcement
D. immediate reinforcement
B. observational learning

A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as a(n)
A. projection.
B. trait.
C. false consensus effect.
D. Oedipus complex.
B. trait.

REM sleep is
A. facilitated by alcohol and facilitated by sleeping pills.
B. inhibited by alcohol and inhibited by sleeping pills.
C. inhibited by alcohol and facilitated by sleeping pills.
D. facilitated by alcohol and inhibited by sleeping pills.
D. facilitated by alcohol and inhibited by sleeping pills.

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. instinctive drift.
C. latent learning.
D. the law of effect.
B. instinctive drift.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will
A. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.
B. have increased blood glucose levels.
C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
D. have a lower set point for body weight.
C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
A. instinct.
B. homeostatic mechanism.
C. incentive.
D. drive.
A. instinct.

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
A. partial reinforcement followed by continuous reinforcement.
B. secondary reinforcement followed by primary reinforcement.
C. continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
D. primary reinforcement followed by secondary reinforcement.
C. continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.

In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants’ willingness to hire the applicants revealed
A. greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.
B. greater discrimination against overweight men than against overweight women.
C. no discrimination against either overweight men or overweight women.
D. equal levels of discrimination against both overweight men and overweight women.
A. greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
A. external influences.
B. emotions.
C. conscious thoughts.
D. unconscious motives.
D. evolutionary perspective.

An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of
A. shaping.
B. classical conditioning.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. negative reinforcement.
B. classical conditioning.

During the course of a full night’s sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in
A. NREM-1 sleep than in NREM-3 sleep.
B. REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.
C. NREM-3 sleep than in NREM-2 sleep.
D. REM sleep than in NREM-2 sleep.
B. REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body’s arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the
A. cortex.
B. hypothalamus.
C. parasympathetic nervous system.
D. thalamus.
A. cortex.

Our ignorance of what we don’t know helps to sustain
A. learned helplessness.
B. an external locus of control.
C. confidence in our own abilities.
D. a pessimistic attributional style.
C. confidence in our own abilities.

Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
A. pessimism.
B. self-serving bias.
C. an internal locus of control.
D. unconditional positive regard.
A. pessimism.

Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that
A. the body movements and gestures used to express emotions are the same throughout the world.
B. accurately identifying emotional facial expressions in people from different cultures requires personal experience with those cultures.
C. it is difficult to use nonverbal cues to mislead others about one’s true emotions.
D. introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.
D. introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.

Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend’s good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of
A. sequential processing.
B. choice blindness.
C. selective attention.
D. dual processing.
C. selective attention.

Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
A. fixed-interval
B. variable-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. fixed-ratio
D. fixed-ratio

Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetically predisposed behaviors?
A. drive-reduction theory
B. hierarchy of needs theory
C. instinct theory
D. arousal theory
C. instinct theory

Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
A. self-serving bias.
B. the spotlight effect.
C. learned helplessness.
D. the Barnum effect.
A. self-serving bias.

Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates
A. informational social influence.
B. peripheral route persuasion.
C. the social-responsibility norm.
D. deindividuation.
B. peripheral route persuasion.

The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with our mental processes is known as
A. cognitive neuroscience.
B. behavior genetics.
C. behaviorism
D. evolutionary psychology
A. cognitive neuroscience.

Damage to the brain’s visual perception track without any damage to the brain’s visual action track is associated with a condition known as
A. blindsight.
B. change blindness.
C. parallel processing.
D. selective attention.
A. blindsight.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
A. predicting; assessing
B. changing; analyzing
C. describing; explaining
D. interpreting; observing
C. describing; explaining

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?
A. classical conditioning
B. operant conditioning
C. observational learning
D. latent learning
B. operant conditioning

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.
A. negative
B. delayed
C. conditioned
D. intermittent
D. intermittent

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
A. predicts
B. causes
C. inhibits
D. is unrelated to
A. predicts

Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of
A. evolution.
B. dual processing.
C. consciousness.
D. socialization.
C. consciousness.

Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates
A. self-serving bias.
B. an external locus of control.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. reaction formation.
A. self-serving bias.

Compared with men, women are ________ effective in discerning whether a male-female couple is a genuine romantic couple or a posed phony couple. They are ________ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other’s supervisor.
A. less; more
B. less; less
C. more; less
D. more; more
D. more; more

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
A. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
B. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
D. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
A. learned helplessness.
B. the false consensus effect.
C. a fixation.
D. a reaction formation.
A. learned helplessness

Research on self-perception indicates that most people
A. feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes.
B. underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments.
C. are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future.
D. view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
D. view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.

When Adam observed his sister being scolded after she hit another child, Adam also discontinued hitting other children. This best illustrates the impact of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. vicarious punishment.
C. intrinsic motivation.
D. instinctive drift.
B. vicarious punishment.

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
A. defense mechanisms.
B. personality traits.
C. psychosexual stages.
D. self-serving biases.
B. personality traits.

The best indicator of a person’s level of optimism is his or her
A. gender identity.
B. attributional style.
C. ideal self.
D. unconditional positive regard.
B. attributional style.

A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
A. criticize others.
B. demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform.
C. experience an internal locus of control.
D. be motivated by a desire for self-actualization.
A. criticize others.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
A. Bandura’s findings on observational learning and aggression in children.
B. Pavlov’s findings on the conditioned salivary response.
C. Garcia and Koelling’s findings on taste aversion in rats.
D. Watson and Rayner’s findings on fear conditioning in infants.
C. Garcia and Koelling’s findings on taste aversion in rats.

The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. cognitive processes.
C. associative learning.
D. discrimination.
B. cognitive processes.

It’s easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A. generalization
B. biological predispositions
C. primary reinforcers
D. spontaneous recovery
B. biological predispositions

Attribution theory suggests that we tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their
A. thoughts or their emotions.
B. heredity or their environment.
C. biological motives or their psychological motives.
D. dispositions or their situations.
D. dispositions or their situations.

Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
A. shaping.
B. delayed reinforcement.
C. respondent behavior.
D. observational learning.
D. observational learning.

People are more critical of their ________ selves than of their ________ selves.
A. impossible; possible
B. possible; impossible
C. current; past
D. past; current
D. past; current

When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her ________ nervous system.
A. somatic
B. central
C. sympathetic
D. parasympathetic
D. parasympathetic

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
A. secondary reinforcement.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. shaping.
D. delayed reinforcement.
C. shaping.

Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid by itself triggers an immune response. This best illustrates
A. negative reinforcement.
B. observational learning.
C. classical conditioning.
D. cognitive learning.
C. classical conditioning.

A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
A. conditioned
B. delayed
C. negative
D. partial
A. conditioned

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. discrimination.
C. extinction.
D. generalization.
C. extinction.