Psychology Chapters 8 & 12

Human Development
The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.

Longitudinal Design
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.

Cross Sectional Design
research design in which several different age-groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time.

Cross-sequential Research Design
research design in which participants are first studied by means of cross-sequential design but are also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years.

Fertilization
the union of the ovum and sperm.

Difference between 1. Monozygotic twins & 2. Dizygotic Twins
1. identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two seperate masses of cells, each of which develops into a seperate embryo.
2. often called fraternal twins, occuring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.

Prenatal Stages
* Germinal Period – first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus.
* Embryonic Period – (2-8 weeks) essential features are established. Most sensitive to environmental influences.
* Fetal Period – (9 wks-birth) changes in size and functioning of organs. 7 months (28 weeks) Viability – fetus could live independently outside the womb.

Viability
When the fetus could live independently outside the womb.

What are some (teratogens) environmental influences on prenatal development?
any factor that can cause a birth defect. Marijuana, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, mercury, syphilis, caffeine, radiation, high water temperatures, rubella

When are teratogens most harmful? (understand the impact of these factors.
Embryonic Period (Critical Periods) – as soon as the embryo begins to receive nourishment from the mother through the placenta, it becomes vulnerable to hazards such as diseases of the mother, drugs, and other toxins that can pass from the mother through the placenta to the developing infant.

Reflexes. Basic Reflexes. Why are they important?
involutary behavior patterns. reflexes help infants survive.
* grasping reflex
* startle reflex (aka moro reflex)
* rooting reflex (when u touch a babys cheek it will turn towards your hand, open its mouth, and search for the nipple)
* stepping reflex
* sucking reflex
if a reflex is absent or abnormal, it may indicate brain damage or some other neurological problem.

Schemes
in this case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events

How do accommodation and assimilation differ?
assimilation – when you first try to understand new things in terms of schemes. ex. a child might see an orange and say “apple” because both objects are round.
accommodation – is the process of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences. ex. when corrected, the child might alter the scheme for apple to include “round” and “red”.

Jean Piaget
researcher who developed theories from detailed observations of infants and children, most especially his own three children.

Stage 1 of Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor – (Birth to 2 yrs old) – Children explore the world using their senses and ability to move. They develop object permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events.

Stage 2 of Piaget’s Cognitive Developement
Preoperational – (2 to 7 yrs old) – young children can mentally represent and refer to objects and events with words or pictures and they can pretend. However, they can’t conserve, logically reason, or simultaneously consider many characteristics of an object.

Stage 3 of Piaget’s Cognitive Developement
Concrete Operations – (7 to 12 yrs) – children at this stage are able to conserve, reverse their thinking, and classify objects in terms of their many characteristics. They can also think logically and understand analogies but only about concrete events.

Stage 4 of Piaget’s Cognitive Developement
Formal Operations – (12 yrs to adulthood) – People at this stage can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations, think about logical possibilites, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and test hypotheses. Not everyone can eventually reason in all these ways.

Vygotsky’s Theory
stressed the importance of social interactions with other people, typically more highly skilled children and adults. Also believed that children developed cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leading questions and providing examples of concepts in a process called scaffolding.

What is temperament? Be familiar with the types
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up.

Attachment
the emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver.

Harlow’s Monkey
“Contact Comfort” – important basic affectional or love variable.

Ainsworth’s study & types of attachment
came up with the social experimental design to measure the attachment of an infant to the caregiver called the “strange situation” (exposing an infant to a series of leave-takings and returns of the mother and a stranger)

Focus of Erikson’s Theory
believed that development occurred in a series of eight stages, with the first four of these stages occurring in infancy and childhood. Each stage is an emotional crisis, or a kind of turning point, in personality, and the crisis in each stage must be successfully met for normal, healthy psychological development.

Scaffolding
in _______, the more highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learners skills improve.

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher.

Stage is Temperament: Easy
babies are regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, and eating and are adaptable to change. these babies are happy babies and when distressed are easily soothed.

Stage is Temperament: Difficult
babies are almost the opposite of easy babies. these babies tend to be irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind. they are loud, active, and tend to be crabby rather than happy.

Stage is Temperament: Slow to warm up
this kind of temperament is associated with infants who are less grumpy, quieter, and more regular that difficult children but who are slow to adapt to change. If change is introduced gradually, these babies will “warm up” to new people and new situations.

Mary Ainsworth’s Attachment Type: Secure
willing to explore

Mary Ainsworth’s Attachment Type: Avoidant
ignores parent

Mary Ainsworth’s Attachment Type: Ambivalent
clingy, angry if mom leaves

Mary Ainsworth’s Attachment Type: Disorganized-disoriented
fearful, dazed

Trust vs Mistrust – (birth – 1yr)
Erikson’s Stage Theory – Stage 1: basic needs consistently or inconsistently met. predictablity–>trust

Autonomy Vs. Shame (1-3yrs) & doubt
Erikson’s Stage Theory – Stage 2: realize they can direct their own behavior. direction–>autonomy

Initiative Vs. Guilt ( 3-5 yrs)
Erikson’s Stage Theory – Stage 3: preschool challenged to control behavior. responsibility —> initiative

Industry Vs. Inferiority (5-12 yrs)
Erikson’s Stage Theory – Stage 4: more opportunities to learn. when children succeed in learning new skills and obtaining new knowledge, they develop a sense of industry, a feeling of competence arising from their work and effort.

Parenting Style: Authoritarian
ridgid, strict, cold

Parenting Style: Permissive
warm but little structure

Parenting Style: Authoritative
reasonable structure and warm

Social Psychology
the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.

Social Influence
the process through which the real or implied presense of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual (Conformity, Compliance, Obedience)

Conformity (Asch’s Study)
Changing behavior to match others – no direct request (kind of like peer pressure)

What factors influence conformity?

Compliance
changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change.

Techniques used to increase compliance
*Foot-in-the-door: starts w/ small request
*Door-in-the-face: large request first.
*Lowball – adding something (cost) after commitment.
*That’s-not-all: making offer look better

Obedience (understand Milgrams study)
Changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure.

Social Cognition
the mental process that people use to make sense of the social world around them.

What are attitudes?
tendency to respond positively or negatively toward people, ideas, etc.

How might attitudes be formed?
*contact
*instruction
*interactions
*observation

3 Components of Attitude
*Affective – feelings
*cognitive – thoughts
*behavior – actions

Stanley Milgrams Study
classic study on obedience, the participants were presented with a control panel. Each participant (“teacher”) was instructed to give electric shocks to another person (“learner”)

How might attitudes be formed?
This tendency, developed through peoples experiences as they live & work with others, can affect the way they behave toward those ideas, people, objects, and situations & can include opinions, beliefs & biases.

Persuasion
the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading or explanation.

3 Elements of persuasion
* Source
* Message
* Target Audience

Cognitive dissonance
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitudes.

How people might reduce Cognitive dissonance
1) changing behavior
2) changing cognition or
3) forming new cognitions to justify behavior

Social Categorization
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past.

Stereotypes
a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category.

Attribution
the process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of others

How internal (dispositional) & external (situational) attributions differ
* Dispositional cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character.
* Situational cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the actions of others, or some other aspect of the situation.

Attribution Theory
the theory of how people make attributions.

Prejudice
negative attitude helb by a person about the members of a particular social group.

Discrimination
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong.

Type of Prejudice: In-Group
social groups with whom a person identifies; “us”

Type of Prejudice: Out-Group
Social groups with whom a person does not identify, “them”

Type of Prejudice: Realistic Conflict Theory
theory stating that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource.

Possible cause of Prejudice
*Social Cognitive Theory – suggests that prejudice is an attitude formed as others are formed.
*Social Identity Theory – suggests three processes are responsible for the formation of a person’s identity within a social group-categorization, identification, and comparison.
*Stereotype Vulnerability – (knowledge of someone else’s stereotyped opinions) can result in self-fulfilling prophecyand is related to stereotype threat when situational anxiety occurs if a person’s behavior might confirm a stereotype.
*Prejudice – can be overcome through education, equal status intergroup contact, and working together to achieve a specific goal.

ways to reduce prejudice & discrimination
* Best weapon is education
* Equal Status Contact – contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other.
* Jigsaw Classroom – educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the seperate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution.

Interpersonal attraction
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person.

Factors influencing attraction
*Physical Attractiveness
*Proximity-Close to you
*Birds of a Feather-Similarity
*When opposites Attract-complementary qualities
*Reciprocity of Liking (like people who like us)

Aggression
occurs when one person verbally or physically hurts or tries to destroy another person; often the result of frustration.

Theories of Aggression
may be partly attributed to genetics and can be triggered by variations in brain function (i.e. amygdala activation) and internal or external chemical influences (e.g. testosterone, alcohol)
*studies have concluded that violent television, movies, and video games stimulate aggressive behavior, both by increasing aggressive tendencies and providing models of aggressive behavior.

Prosocial behavior
behavior that is socially desirable and benefits others.

Bystander Effect
refers to the finding that the likelihood of a bystander (someone observing an event and close enough to offer help) to help someone in trouble decreases as the number of bystanders increases. If only one person is standing by, that person is far more likely to help than if there is another person, and the addition of each new bystander decreases the possibility of helping behavior even more.

Decision Steps
*Noticing – realizing that there is a situation that might be an ER.
*Defining an Emergency – interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency.
*Taking Responsibility – Personally assuming the responsibility to act.
* Planning a Course of Action – Deciding how to help and what skills might be needed.
*Taking Action – actually helping.

Factor that Influences Helping
Costs of helping (e.g. danger to self) must not outweigh the rewards of helping.