Psychology chapter 6

A learned association between two stimuli is Central to
Classical conditioning
A stimulus that gains reinforcing power through its links with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer
Conditioned
After a week at college, Su-Chan has formed a mental representation of the campus layout. She no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
Cognitive map
An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a
Reinforcement
At one time Jimmy was scared of dogs because he was bitten by one. With subsequent repeated exposure to tame dogs and safe settings, however, his fear of dogs has gradually faded. Jimmy’s diminishing fear of dogs best illustrates
Extinction
Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. This principle is called
The law of effect
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
Observational learning
Conditioning is the process of
Learning associations
Evidence that organisms most readily learn behaviors favored by natural selection best illustrates the importance of
Biological constraints
Helpful and constructive actions best illustrate
Prosocial Behavior
In Pavlov’s experiments, after pairing with the presentation of food, the sound of the tone triggered the dogs salivation. Salivation to the sound of the tone was a
Conditioned response
And classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the occurrence of
And unconditioned stimulus
John B Watson and Ivan Pavlov would have disapproved of attempts to scientifically study whether
Academic achievement is influenced by positive self concept
Male Japanese quail became excited by a red light that was turned on each time just before a sexually approachable female quail was presented. They sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a
CR
Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments _______ the rate of operant responding
Increase; decrease
Peggy’s use of foul language decreased because it was followed by the loss of her $5 weekly allowance. Taking away Peggy’s allowance served as _______ for her foul language
Negative punishment
Rats most easily learn to associate ______ with becoming sick
Novel tastes
Shaping is a procedure in which reinforcers are
Used to guide actions closer and closer to a desired Behavior
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus is called
Discrimination
The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during Extinction
The CR is suppressed
The views of learning Advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B Watson underestimated the importance of
Cognitive processes
Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing outcomes are called
Operant behaviors
When grocery shopping with his mother, four-year-old Hakim throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his request for a particular snack food. Parent training experts would suggest that his mother should
Continue shopping while ignoring Hakim’s tantrums
Without conscious reflection, people often yawn when they observe others yawning. Researchers are now considering whether this can be attributed to
Mirror neuron activity
Yuri enrolled in an introductory psychology course to learn about human behavior. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade point average. And this instance, your Yuri’s behavior reflects ________; George’s Behavior reflects ________
Intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
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