Psychology Chapter 12 Vocab

Personality
a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way someone adapts to the world

Psychodynamic Persepctives
theoretical views emphasizing that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness)

id
the Freudian structure of personality consisting of unconscious drives; the person’s reservoir of sexual energy

Ego
The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality

Superego
The Freudian structure of personality that serves as the harsh internal judge of our behavior; what we often call conscience

Defense Mechanisms
The Freudian term for tactics the ego uses to redue anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Oedipus Complex
according to Freud, a boy’s intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother

Collective Unconscious
Jung’s term for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past

Archetypes
Jung’s term for emotionally laden ideas and images in the collective unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people

Individual Psychology
Adler’s view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life

Humanistic Perspectuves
Theoretical views stressing a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities

Unconditional Positive Regard
Roger’s construct referring to the person’s need to be accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of his or her behavior

Conditions of Worth
the standards that the person must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others

Trait Theories
theoretical views stressing that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses

Big 5 Factors of Personality
the five broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality:
-neuroticism (emotional instability)
-extraversion
-openness to experience
-agreeableness
-conscientiousness

Personological and Life Story Perspectives
Theoretical views stressing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story

Social Cognitive Perspectives
theoretical views emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, and expectations, and goals

Self-efficacy
the belief that one can accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change

Cognitive Affective Processing Systems(CAPS)
Mischel’s theoretical model for describing that individuals’ thoughts and emotions about themselves and the world affect their behavior and become linked in ways that matter to that behavior

Behavioral Genetics
the study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics

Self-Report Test
a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits; also called an objective test or an inventory

Empirically Keyed Test
A type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items in 2 groups that are known to be different in some central way

Minnesota Mulitphasic Personality Inventory (MMP)
the most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test

Face Validity
the extent to which a test item appears to fit the particular trait it is measuring

Projective Test
A personality assessment test that presents people with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or tell a story about it- to project their own meaning onto the stimulus

Rorschach Inkblot Test
a famous projective test that uses an person’s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about a person’s personality

Type A Behavior Pattern
being very competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile- related to higher incidence of heart disease

Type B Behavior Pattern
being relaxed and easygoing-related to a lower incidence of heart disease

Type D Behavior Pattern
being generally distressed, having negative emotions, being socially inhibited-related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes

Subjective Well-Being
a person’s assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and an evaluation of his or her life in general