Psychology Ch. 5

Piaget’s first stage, the sensorimotor stage, spans the first __________ of life
two years
Piaget believed that infants and toddlers
“think” with their eyes, ears, and hands.
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called __________ are organized ways of making sense of experience.
schemes
Six-month-old Eva drops her teething ring in a fairly rigid way, simply letting go and watching it with interest. This example demonstrates Piaget’s belief that, at first, schemes are
sensorimotor action patterns.
__________ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
Adaptation
During __________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.
assimilation; accommodation
Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura’s modification of her dropping scheme is an example of
accommodation.
When children are not changing much cognitively, they __________ more than they __________.
assimilate; accommodate
In Piaget’s theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,
cognitive change is rapid.
In Piaget’s theory, children shift from assimilation toward accommodation when they are
in a state of cognitive disequilibrium.
In Piaget’s theory, each time the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium occurs,
more effective schemes are produced.
Apart from direct contact with the environment, schemes also change
through organization.
According to Piaget, organization takes place
internally.
According to Piaget, a __________ is a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again.
circular reaction
The circular reaction initially centers on
the infant’s own body.
Piaget named the sensorimotor substages after
revisions in the circular reaction.
In Piaget’s theory, __________ are the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence.
newborn reflexes
According to Piaget’s theory, when Baby Sasha sucks her thumb, she is demonstrating a __________ circular reaction.
primary
Baby Alan started opening his mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon. Baby Alan is probably in Stage ___ of Piaget’s sensorimotor stages.
2
Baby Andrew accidentally kicks his mobile, producing music. Andrew then repeatedly kicks his leg to repeat the effect, gradually forming a new kicking scheme. Andrew is in which of Piaget’s sensorimotor substages?
3
In Piaget’s theory, 8- to 12-month-olds can use __________ to solve simple problems.
goal-directed behavior
Baby Hannah is shown a stuffed sheep, and then it is hidden under a blanket. Which of the following statements is true?
Hannah must coordinate two schemes to retrieve the object: “pushing” aside the blanket and “grasping” the stuffed sheep.
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master
object permanence.
Awareness of object permanence is not yet complete in Piaget’s Substage 4 because
babies still make the A-not-B search error.
Infants in Substage 4 of the sensorimotor period, who can better anticipate events, sometimes use __________ to try to change those events.
their capacity for intentional behavior
In Substage 5 of the sensorimotor period, toddlers
repeat behaviors with variation.
Our most powerful mental representations include __________ and __________.
images; concepts
In Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period, the ability to create mental representations enables toddlers to __________ and __________.
engage in deferred imitation; use make-believe play
Researchers using the violation-of-expectation method may use __________ by exposing babies to a physical event until their looking declines.
habituation
In the violation-of-expectation method, __________ suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality.
heightened attention to an unexpected event
In a series of studies using the violation-of-expectation method, Renée Baillargeon and her collaborators claimed to have found evidence for
object permanence in the first few months of life.
Follow-up research on infant cognitive development suggests that mastery of object permanence
is a gradual achievement.
Follow-up research on cognitive development indicates that __________ is present as early as 6 weeks.
deferred imitation
One of the most momentous early attainments is the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present—a symbolic capacity called
displaced reference.
The average U.S. 2-year-old watches __________ of TV and video per day.
C) 1½ hours
A group of 2-year-olds watch through a window while a live adult hides an object in an adjoining room. Another group watches the same event on a video screen. Which of the following is likely to occur?
Children in the direct viewing condition will retrieve the toy easily, while those in the video condition will have difficulty.
The video deficit effect
declines around age 2½.
Unlike Piaget, most researchers now believe that
infants have some built-in cognitive equipment for making sense of experience.
Professor Rellinger believes that babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems. Professor Rellinger’s beliefs are consistent with the __________ perspective.
core knowledge
According to the core knowledge perspective, each of an infant’s __________ permits a ready grasp of new, related information.
core domains of thought
Core knowledge theorists assume that
an inherited foundation of linguistic knowledge enables swift language acquisition in early childhood.
Research suggests that infants
have basic numeric knowledge.
Current research on infant cognition yields broad agreement on which of the following?
Many cognitive changes of infancy are gradual and continuous.
Information-processing researchers focus on
many aspects of thinking, from attention, memory, and categorization skills to complex problem solving.
In the information-processing system, information first enters
the sensory register.
In the __________, sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.
sensory register
__________ can be thought of as a “mental workspace” that we use to accomplish many activities in daily life.
Working memory
In the information-processing system, a special part of working memory, called the __________, directs the flow of information.
central executive
__________ are so well-learned that they require no space in working memory and, therefore, permit us to focus on other information while performing them.
Automatic processes
_________ controls attention, suppresses impulses, coordinates information in working memory, and flexibly directs and monitors thought and behavior.
Executive function
One reason that very young babies’ habituation times are so much longer than those of older babies is that
they have difficulty disengaging attention from a stimulus.
With the transition to toddlerhood, attraction to __________ declines and __________ improves.
novelty; sustained attention
__________ and __________ provide windows into early memory by showing that retention of visual events increases dramatically over infancy and toddlerhood.
Operant conditioning; habituation
Recall is more challenging than recognition because it
D) involves remembering something that is not present.
Which of the following statements about infantile amnesia is true?
Most older children and adults cannot retrieve events that happened before age 3.
Research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot remember events that happened during the first few years of life because
adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language.
Studies of infantile amnesia suggest that __________ contributes to the end of infantile amnesia.
the advent of a clear self-image
__________ helps infants reduce the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day so they can learn and remember.
Categorization
By 6 months of age, babies can categorize on the basis of
two correlated features.
Babies’ earliest categories are
based on similar overall appearance or prominent object part.
Korean toddlers often develop object-sorting skills later than their English-speaking counterparts because
the Korean language often omits object names from sentences.
One of the greatest drawbacks of the information-processing approach is its difficulty with
integrating information into a broad, comprehensive theory
Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origin in
social interaction.
According to Vygotsky, children master activities through
joint activities with more mature members of their society.
According to Vygotsky, __________ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.
the zone of proximal development
In the form of teaching known as scaffolding, as a child’s competence increases, the adult
steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task.
Two-year-old Carmen is trying to fit pieces into a wooden puzzle form. Her father helps Carmen turn the pieces so they fit snuggly in place. As Carmen’s skill improves, her father steps back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of
scaffolding.
Vygotsky challenged Piaget’s conclusion that
toddlers discover make-believe play independently, once they are capable of representational schemes.
Research demonstrates that early make-believe play is
the combined result of children’s readiness to engage in it and social experiences that promote it.
In cultures where extended-family households and sibling caregiving are common, make-believe is more frequent and complex with __________ than with __________.
older siblings; mothers
Compared with cognitive theories, mental tests
focus on the products of cognitive development rather than on the process of development.
One goal of mental testing is to
arrive at scores that predict future performance.
Most infant intelligence tests emphasize
perceptual and motor responses.
An intelligence quotient (IQ)
indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals.
Dr. Ewing measured individual differences in a large sample of individuals using intelligence testing. If performances at each age level formed a normal distribution, the results were probably __________-shaped
bell
Knowing Niraj’s IQ score helps his father
know whether Niraj is ahead, behind, or on time in mental development compared with his agemates.
Sophia has an IQ of 85. She performed as well or better than _____ percent of her agemates.
16
The IQs of 96 percent of individuals fall between _____ and _____.
B) 70; 130
Intelligence test scores of infants and toddlers often do not reflect their true abilities because
they easily become distracted, fatigued, or bored during testing.
Because infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are conservatively labeled __________ rather than IQs.
developmental quotients (DQs)
Infant intelligence tests are somewhat better at making long-term predications for __________ babies.
extremely low-scoring
Research using the HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents __________ is especially important in facilitating toddlers’ intelligence test performance.
talk to their infants and toddlers
__________ is/are (a) much better indicator(s) than an early mental test score of how children will do later.
Warm, responsive parenting that builds on toddlers’ current capacities
Research consistently shows that infants and young children exposed to __________ child care score lower on measures of __________ skills.
poor-quality; social and cognitive
Good quality child care
can reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty-stricken home life.
In contrast to the United States, most European countries
nationally regulate child care to ensure its quality.
U.S. child care settings providing the very worst quality of care tend to serve __________ families.
middle-SES
Child care in the United States is
affected by a macrosystem of individualistic values and weak government regulation and funding.
Early intervention programs
serve economically at-risk children and their parents.
Research showed that by age 3, children in Early Head Start
demonstrated gains in cognitive and language development.
Which of the following statements about early intervention is true?
The strongest effects of early intervention occur at sites that offer a mix of center- and home-based services.
Which of the following statements about language development is true?
By age 6, most children speak in elaborate sentences and are skilled conversationalists.
Dr. Hahn believes that language is etched into the structure of the brain. Dr. Hahn endorses the __________ perspective of language development.
nativist
Nativist Noam Chomsky believed that
the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to or discovered by even a cognitively sophisticated young child.
According to Noam Chomsky, all children have a __________ device that contains a universal grammar.
language acquisition
Chomsky’s “LAD” is a(n)
innate system that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words.
Efforts to teach language to nonhuman primates
support Chomsky’s assumption that the capacity for elaborate grammar is unique to humans.
Research on language acquisition indicates that
childhood is a sensitive period for language acquisition
Challenges to Chomsky’s theory suggest that
it provides only a partial account of language development.
For most people, language is
housed largely in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex.
Recent ideas about language development emphasize
interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences.
Social-interactionsts emphasize that
children’s social skills and language experiences are centrally involved in language development.
Two-month-old Penny makes vowel-like noises. This is an example of
cooing.
Baby Greer says “babababababa.” This is an example of
babbling.
Babies everywhere start babbling at about the same age, but for babbling to develop further,
babies must be able to hear human speech.
Which of the following statements is supported by research on babbling?
A deaf infant not exposed to sign language will stop babbling entirely.
Baby Kataro frequently experiences joint attention. This means that he will probably
produce meaningful words earlier.
Infants’ play maturity and __________ predict advanced language progress in the second year.
vocalizations during games
The earlier toddlers __________, the sooner they produce two-word utterances at the end of the second year
form word-gesture combinations
Which of the following is the most likely to be among an English-speaking toddler’s first 50 words?
ball
When toddlers first learn words, they often apply them too narrowly, an error called
underextension.
Sixteen-month-old Grayson calls all dogs “dog,” but only uses the word “puppy” to refer to his family’s dog. This is an example of
underextension.
Alice calls untying her shoelaces “opening” her shoes. This is an example of
overextension.
Which of the following statements about overextension is true?
Children often overextend deliberately because they have difficulty recalling or have not acquired a suitable word.
At all ages, __________ develops ahead of __________.
comprehension; production
Young toddlers add to their spoken vocabularies at a rate of
one to three words per week.
Recent evidence suggests that
most children show a steady rate of word learning that continues through the preschool years.
Miranda says “more apple.” This two-word utterance is an example of
telegraphic speech.
Which of the following statements about telegraphic speech is true?
It usually copies adult word pairings.
Many studies show that __________ are ahead of __________ in early vocabulary growth.
girls; boys
Which of the following toddlers is the most likely to have the largest vocabulary?
Fei Yen from China
Two-year-old Grace believes that words are for talking about people’s feelings and needs. Her vocabulary consists of many social formulas and pronouns. Grace uses
an expressive style.
__________ is a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.
Infant-directed speech
Which of the following parent-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?
reading and talking about picture books
Infant-directed speech and parent-child conversation
create a zone of proximal development in which children’s language expands

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