Psychology – Ch. 5

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves:
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect hat simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of:
biological preparedness.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads into an involuntary (reflex) response if a/an:
unconditioned stimulus.

_____ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence or the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
extinction

In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they:
heard the sound of the metronome.

Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’ _____.
digestive systems

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called:
latent learning.

Further studies that followed Kohler’s work with chimpanzees:
have found support for the concept of animal insight.

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:
learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map.

I Kohler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana places farther away. This was an example of:
insight

In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone:
jumped over the fence when the shock started.

In a(n) _____, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:
successive approximations.

What are two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
involuntary and voluntary

The law of effect states if an action if followed by a pleasurable consequence, the action if likely to:
be repeated.

It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:
obtaining food.

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
memory

Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
Albert Bandura

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
Observational learning

Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of:
conditioned emotional response.

After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:
stimulus generalization.

A teacher has decided to give “caught being good” tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using:
operant conditioning.

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seen a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Another group has seen the model get punished rather than get a reward. Which of the following statements is true about these children?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done.

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal.

Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called:
maturation.

The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, _____, and _____.
imitation; desire.

_____ believed that classical and conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
Pavlov

_____ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
Viscarious conditioning

in defining learning, “_____” refers to the fact that when people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changes to record what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.
relatively permanent

Following a response with the removal of something unpleasant is called:
negative reinforcement.

A recent study suggests a link between spanking and:
aggression in children.

The Bredlands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that:
all responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.

Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
Martin Seligman

A typical use of applied behavior analysis is:
treating children with disorders such as autism.

Pavlov’s dogs exhibited stimulus discrimination when they:
did not demonstrate a conditioned response upon hearing ticking sounds similar to the metronome.

Which of the following is an example of maturation?
One-year-old baby Jesse could not walk two months ago but now he can.

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