Psychology As A Science (apex)

Categorical Variables
Variables that represent categories rather then numbers

Causation
Any scientifically proven relationship where one event or change causes another

Correlation
Any scientifically proven relationship between two or more variables

Correlation Alone Does Not Prove Causation
A basic and often repeated principle in science stating that a correlation must be investigated before it can be concluded that one thing causes another

Data
Information that is collected and analyzed in a scientific study

Illusory Correlation
A correlation that appears to exist, but scientific investigation shows that it doesn’t exist

Negative Correlation
One variable increases as another decreases

No Correlation
When two variables are not related

Observation
Viewing or measuring while trying not to influence whats being studied

Positive Correlation
When two variables increase together

Scatterplot
A method of displaying data on 2 axis to show if a relationship exists

Variables
Things that are measured or changed in a study and that are expected to vary

Weak Correlation
When it is not clear whether a relationship exists between 2 variables

Behavioral Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with human behavior and the effects of reward and punishment

Biological Basis
The processes in your body’s cells that allow every thought, feeling, and the behavior to take place

Biomedical Model
The perspective of psychology concerned with the biological basis of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

Biopsychology
The application of principles of biology toward the study of psychology. Also known as biological psychology, behavioral psychology, behavioral neuroscience, or psychobiology

Cognitive Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with thoughts and memory

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A goal-oriented approach to therapy that combines aspects of behavioral and cognitive methods

Developmental Psychology
The study of changes that happen in human beings over the life span

Genes
The coded instructions within every living cell that assist the cells development and function

Humanistic Psychology
The perspective of psychology that emphasizes potential and personal growth

Nature-Nurture Question
The question of whether a person’s traits are mostly the result of genes or the environment

Positive Psychology
The scientific study of human functioning, prompting strengths that help people and communities thrive

Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Science
The pursuit of knowledge and understanding based on facts that are observable and testable

Social Psychology
The scientific study pf how we think about, influence, and relate to other people

Bias
An unintended influence that makes a study less objective or impartial

Coding
A method for pulling quantitative data out of qualitative data

Convenience Sample
A sample made up of only people who are easy to contact

Generalize
Using results from a sample to draw conclusions about the entire population

Interviewer-Induced-Bias
When the interviewer unknowingly directs the respondent to give a particular answer

Observational Study
A study in which the researchers observe or measure while trying not to influence what they are studying

Population
The entire group of people that a study is working to understand

Question-Working Bias
When a question leads a person to give a specific or untruthful answer

Random Sample
Members of a population are chosen at random to be included in a sample

Response Bias
Any type of untruthful or unfairly influenced response that reflects that responders bias

Representative Sample
A sample that includes the same characteristics as the general population and may therefore be used to draw conclusions about the population itself

Sample
A part of a population selected for a study

Subjects
The people who are selected to be in a sample and participate in the study