Psychology and Life chapter 2 (20th edition)

Helps to formulate a research questoin

Cause and result. Idea that events in life like taking drugs are the result of causal factors like depression.

testable statement

Observer Bias
When people see or hear what they expect rather than what is

consistent guidelines and procedures throughout the experiment

Operational Definitions
variables in an experiment must be given operational definitions rats not fed for 24 hours (measurable), standardized.

Tv show makes person aggressive. Variable shown in the morning or shown in the afternoon

Independent variable
factor that is manipulated or changed. For example light exposed to a moth. In experiment only one independent variable at a time (the thing you are going to change).

Dependent variable
the thing in the experiment that is measured. Ex. moth is attracted to light exposed.

Experimental Methods
manipulate factors to discover their effects. The independent variable with strong effect or impact on dependent variable.

Confounding Variable
The elephant in the room, the third variable not considered.

Expectancy Effect
Creating the expected reaction. When a researcher messes up results and tells participant what behavior he/she expects them to find. Ex. Rats that are all the same smartness. Are tested in a maze. Kids are told this half are the bright breed while group 2 of kids are told that this half are not bright. Kids go by what people tell them rather than why they actually think, because the way you worded it.

Placebo Effect
Participants behavior changes in the abstinence of experimental manipulation ex. Receiving medication that is told to make you better but actually has no real benefit. But patient happens to get better, because of placebo effect

Controlled Procedures
Making sure experiences for the participants are the same. That everything stays constant accept the independent variable is effect on dependent, so you can test what effected what and confirm or not confirm hypothesis

Double Blind Control
Keeping the research assistant blind and the participants so their is no accidental observer bias or expectancy effect. When neither side know what you are testing/analyzing in the experiment.

Placebo control
The control in a placebo experiment. When placebo condition appears the same as the treatment condition.

Between Subjects Design
a different group of subjects is tested under each condition
an experiment in which each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable.

Random Assignment
Method used to limit chance of confounding variables. Having random participants. By having an equal likely hood that they could be assigned to a condition in the experiment.

Experimental Group
The group that experiences the manipulation in the independent variable. Those that love violent t and those that feel otherwise.

Representative Sample
A study that has a diverse group in a small sample in order to represent the population.

Within Subjects Design
Using subjects as their own control. For example participants before receiving treatment and participants after treatment

Correlational Methods
Using stats to determine to what extent variables or things relate. (r)= accuracy level. Finding patterns and relations in experiment.

Correlation Coefficient (r)
(r)= indicates positive, negative or no correlation

The experiment can be repeated with any new group of participants of comparable size and generate the same pattern of data.

Applying results from the lab and applying them to the real world. Taking results and generalizing it to broader circumstances.

Self Report Measures
When participants give either written or oral reports, based on questions prompted by researcher.

Behavioral Measures
Observing behavior and keeping good track of what you observe.

Naturalistic Observation
Research observes behavior with no interference. Ex One-way mirror, researcher can observe a child without interference.

Case Study
Intensive observation of a specific small group or an individual

Informed consent
They are informed of what they will experience in the experiment and what the procedure is. Aware of the risk, may leave at anytime, signed contract.

Telling them what happen once the experiment is over. Telling them the true purpose and nature of the experiment.

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