PSYCH460-Exam 3

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
1. Psychological Skills
Ideally, a PST program should be planned, implemented, and supervised by aa. coach
b. general manager
c. AASP-certified sport psychology consultant
d. coach and athlete
e. NASPSPA-certified sport psychology consultant
*c. AASP-certified sport psychology consultant
4. Psychological Skills 4
Which of the following explain(s) why players and coaches often neglect psychological skills training?a. lack of knowledge
b. lack of time
c. viewing psychological skills as unchangeable
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
6. Psychological Skills 6
From a psychological perspective, the ultimate goal of psychological skills training isa. self-efficacy
b. self-regulation
c. self-esteem
d. mental preparation
e. self-concept
*b. self-regulation
7. Psychological Skills 7
Results of a study focusing on successful versus unsuccessful athletes showed that more successful athletes are characterized bya. higher self-confidence
b. higher anxiety
c. more task-oriented thoughts
d. a and b
e. a and c
*e. a and c
10. Psychological Skills10
The PST knowledge base has come from what sources?a. research on elite athletes
b. athlete-coach experiences
c. research on youth sport
d. a and b
*d. a and b
12. Psychological Skills12
Sport psychology topics that form the basis for PST programs include which of the following?a. confidence building
b. imagery
c. group cohesion
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
14. Psychological Skills14
The studies investigating the effectiveness of PST in enhancing performance have generally founda. that PST enhances the performance of elite but not recreational athletes
b. that PST enhances the performance of collegiate athletes
c. that PST enhances performance in older and younger athletes
d. b and c
e. a and b
*d. b and c
15. Psychological Skills15
Which of the following demonstrate(s) psychological skills training?a. A fitness instructor suggests using positive self-statements to enhance self-esteem with an overweight client.
b. A physical education teacher uses relaxation training to help students calm down before going on to their next class.
c. A therapist uses behavior modification techniques to help a person quit smoking.
d. a and c
e. a and b
*e. a and b
16. Psychological Skills16
When is it generally best to implement a PST program?a. anytime
b. during the off-season or preseason
c. after a problem is identified
d. before important competitions
e. before easy competitions
*b. during the off-season or preseason
17. Psychological Skills17
When new psychological skills are being learned, how long should they generally be practiced?a. 5 days a week, 60 minutes a day
b. 3 to 5 days a week, 15 to 30 minutes a day
c. twice a week, 30 minutes a day
d. 5 days a week, 45 to 60 minutes a day
e. 3 days a week, 60 minutes a day
*b. 3 to 5 days a week, 15 to 30 minutes a day
18. Psychological Skills18
After a PST program has been put in place, how long do athletes need to continue practicing their mental skills?a. as long as they continue to participate in their sports
b. 3 months
c. 6 months
d. 1 year
e. 1 month
*a. as long as they continue to participate in their sports
19. Psychological Skills19
PST takes what type of approach to mental training?a. clinical
b. counseling
c. educational
d. philosophical
e. pragmatic
*c. educational
20. Psychological Skills20
A baseball player’s slump can be caused by what kind(s) of problems?a. psychological
b. biomechanical
c. physiological
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
21. Psychological Skills21
What is the best way to get information concerning an athlete’s psychological strengths and weaknesses?a. psychological inventories
b. an oral interview
c. an oral interview and psychological inventories
d. projective and objective psychological inventories
*c. an oral interview and psychological inventories
26. Psychological Skills26
Which of the following is (are) characteristic of EFFECTIVE consultants that athletes note in interviews with sport psychologists?a. They only conduct one follow-up session with athletes.
b. They are accessible and establish rapport with the athletes.
c. They are flexible in meeting individual athletes’ needs.
d. b and c
e. a and b
*d. b and c
27. Psychological Skills27
Performance profiling as a means of assessing athletes’ mental skills works by asking athletes toa. observe other elite athletes who have excellent psychological skills
b. identify, assess, and compare their own mental skills against those of other elite athletes in their sport
c. take a series of personality tests to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding mental skills
d. observe themselves for several weeks and keep a log regarding their mental skills
*b. identify, assess, and compare their own mental skills against those of other elite athletes in their sport
33. Psychological Skills33
According to recent research on mental toughness, which of the following is (are) a way(s) to increase mental toughness?a. Create intense competitive practices simulating game situations.
b. Have high expectations of athletes.
c. Create a negative mental environment because athletes react positively to threats of punishment.
d. a and c
e. a and b
*e. a and b
35. Psychological Skills35
A recent study found that coaches particularly use the mental skills ofa. self-talk and imagery
b. self-talk and anxiety management
c. imagery and anxiety management
d. routines and imagery
e. routines and self-talk
*a. self-talk and imagery
38. Psychological Skills38
Experts compared to non-expertsa. anticipated opponents’ intentions quicker
b. had shorter “quiet eye” periods
c. are equal in terms of visual function and visual acuity
d. a and c
e. a and b
*a. anticipated opponents’ intentions quicker
2. Arousal Regulation 2
A good starting point for increasing awareness of arousal states is toa. visualize your best and worst performances
b. visualize only your best performance
c. develop relaxation skills
d. learn transcendental meditation
e. learn autogenic training
*a. visualize your best and worst performances
3. Arousal Regulation 3
Which of the following is (are) NOT a stage(s) in autogenic training?a. regulation of breathing
b. regulation of cardiac activity
c. cooling of the extremities
d. a and c
e. b and c
*c. cooling of the extremities
4. Arousal Regulation 4
The two sensations that are emphasized in autogenic training area. warmth and cold
b. warmth and heaviness
c. kinesthetic and heaviness
d. warmth and kinesthetic
e. cold and kinesthetic
*b. warmth and heaviness
7. Arousal Regulation 7
The premise of stress inoculation training is toa. expose the person to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person’s immunity to stress
b. teach both somatic and cognitive anxiety skills
c. teach people that stress is predominantly in their minds
d. teach people to appraise stressful situations
*a. expose the person to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person’s immunity to stress
9. Arousal Regulation 9
Using an electronic monitoring device that can detect and amplify internal responses not ordinarily available to us is known asa. systematic desensitization
b. classical conditioning
c. biological mapping
d. biofeedback
e. biological conditioning
*d. biofeedback
10. Arousal Regulation10
Effective breathing occurs from thea. diaphragm
b. central chest
c. upper chest
d. throat
*a. diaphragm
11. Arousal Regulation11
Athletes should make sure that when they are performing a skill under pressure, theya. breathe out during execution of the skill
b. breathe in during execution of the skill
c. hold their breath during execution of the skill
d. breathe shallowly during execution of the skill
*a. breathe out during execution of the skill
15. Arousal Regulation15
Which of the following is (are) NOT a tenet(s) of progressive relaxation?a. Tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously.
b. A decrease in muscle tension will lead to a decrease in mental tension.
c. Progressively contract and relax the major muscle groups in the body.
d. a and b
e. b and c
*a. Tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously.
16. Arousal Regulation16
Excess anxiety can producea. inappropriate muscle tension
b. inappropriate thoughts
c. somatic (physiological) reactions
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
17. Arousal Regulation17
A good way to increase awareness of psychological states in sport is toa. monitor and record your psychological states immediately after practice and competition
b. talk to teammates
c. practice relaxation techniques
d. practice cognitive restructuring
*a. monitor and record your psychological states immediately after practice and competition
19. Arousal Regulation19
The matching hypothesis refers toa. matching athletes with coaches to reduce anxiety levels
b. matching athletes with other athletes of similar anxiety levels
c. matching the type of anxiety management technique to the specific anxiety problem of each athlete
d. matching athletes to the sport that is least anxiety provoking to them
*c. matching the type of anxiety management technique to the specific anxiety problem of each athlete
21. Arousal Regulation21
According to research with elite athletes by Gould and colleagues, athletesa. prepared for unexpected events
b. usually overtrained
c. placed a great deal of importance on mental training
d. a and c
*d. a and c
22. Arousal Regulation22
Which of the following is NOT a phase in the hypnosis process?a. induction phase
b. hypnotic phase
c. autogenic phase
d. waking phase
e. posthypnotic phase
*c. autogenic phase
23. Arousal Regulation23
According to the study by Eubank and Collins, individuals perceiving their anxiety as facilitative (as opposed to debilitative) use morea. emotion-focused coping
b. problem-focused coping
c. imagery
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
24. Arousal Regulation24
Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is (are) true?a. The more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the more likely they will benefit from hypnosis.
b. Negative suggestions almost always result in a decrease in performance.
c. The deeper the trance, the less likely the hypnosis will be effective.
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
25. Arousal Regulation25
Which of the following levels of effort produced the fastest running times of 400-meter runners?a. 110%
b. 100%
c. 75%
d. 95%
*d. 95%
27. Arousal Regulation27
The two most widely accepted coping categories are known asa. problem-focused and cognitive-focused coping
b. problem-focused and emotion-focused coping
c. cognitive-focused and somatic-focused coping
d. emotion-focused and somatic-focused coping
e. emotion-focused and cognitive-focused coping
*b. problem-focused and emotion-focused coping
29. Arousal Regulation29
Which of the following can increase activation?a. using positive mood words
b. slowing down the breathing rate
c. listening to energizing music
d. a and c
e. b and c
*d. a and c
30. Arousal Regulation30
An athlete who is underactivated commonly experiences which of the following?a. heavy feeling in the legs
b. mind wandering
c. feelings of anxiety
d. a and b
e. b and c
*d. a and b
31. Arousal Regulation31
Which of the following can be useful as an on-site strategy to help reduce tension?a. Smile when the pressure is coming on.
b. Slow down.
c. Stay focused in the present.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
32. Arousal regulation
Which of the following is (are) true in terms of resiliency?a. Sociocultural influences such as social support are not related to being resilient.
b. The essence of resiliency is the use of different coping strategies to deal with unpleasant emotions.
c. Mental toughness is seen as critical to being resilient.
d. b and c
e. a and b
*d. b and c
33. Arousal Regulation32
Cognitive restructuring attempts toa. identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements
b. improve problem-solving ability
c. improve attentional focus
d. identify different strategies for mental preparation
*a. identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements
37. Arousal Regulation36
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding research findings on coping in sport?a. Athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies.
b. Athletes usually stick with one coping strategy.
c. Athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had higher performance.
d. a and b
e. a and c
*e. a and c
40. Arousal Regulation39
For long-term coping, research indicates that the most effective strategy isa. active-problem-focused coping
b. avoidance coping
c. emotion-focused coping
d. cognitive appraisal coping
e. active-avoidance coping
*a. active-problem-focused coping
41. Arousal Regulation40
Which of the following is (are) a strategy(ies) for coping with different emotions in sport?a. vicarious learning
b. self-analysis
c. reframing
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
42. Arousal Regulation41
The “yips” refers toa. a condition most often associated with golf that includes involuntary tremors and jerking of the hands caused by excessive anxiety
b. a condition associated with losing confidence when sailing
c. an entire team feeling the pressure and thus “choking”
d. a condition usually seen in individual sports characterized by a loss of attentional focus and an increase in physiological arousal
*a. a condition most often associated with golf that includes involuntary tremors and jerking of the hands caused by excessive anxiety
44. Arousal Regulation43
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for giving a pep-talk?a. Give players a plan.
b. Use humor.
c. Stress effort.
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
1. Imagery
Basic imagery training involvesa. controllability and awareness
b. controllability and vividness
c. vividness and relaxation
d. relaxation and awareness
e. relaxation and controllability
*b. controllability and vividness
2. Imagery 2
Imagery involves which of the following senses?a. visual
b. auditory
c. kinesthetic
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*d. all of the above
4. Imagery 4
Research using U.S. and Canadian Olympic athletes has shown that approximately what percent of athletes use imagery?a. 50%
b. 75%
c. 95%
d. 85%
e. 60%
*c. 95%
5. Imagery 5
Vividly imagined events produce an innervation in muscles that is similar to the innervation produced by physically practicing the movement. This is an illustration ofa. symbolic learning theory
b. psychoneuromuscular theory
c. muscular contraction theory
d. innervation theory
e. psychodynamic theory
*b. psychoneuromuscular theory
6. Imagery 6
Which of the following is (are) true?a. Imagery is used most often prior to competition.
b. Imagery has both motivational and affective roles in changing behavior.
c. The most often-used imagery is known as cognitive general imagery.
d. a and c
*a. Imagery is used most often prior to competition.
13. Imagery13
Which of the following athletes use(s) imagery as part of preparation for competition?a. Dwight Stones
b. Jean-Claude Killy
c. Jack Nicklaus
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
14. Imagery14
Internal imagery (as compared to external imagery) makes it easier for an athlete to experience which of the following senses?a. kinesthetic
b. auditory
c. visual
d. olfactory
*a. kinesthetic
15. Imagery15
Triple code theory refers to what three parts of the image?a. image itself, image meaning, somatic response to the image
b. image itself, image meaning, cognitive response to the image
c. image itself, image timing, somatic response to the image
d. image meaning, image timing, cognitive response to the image
e. image consistency, image meaning, image timing
*a. image itself, image meaning, somatic response to the image
16. Imagery16
An athlete tries to image shooting a free throw under pressure, but the ball keeps hitting the rim and bouncing off. This is an example of a lack ofa. vividness
b. coordination
c. controllability
d. experimental control
e. emotionality
*c. controllability
18. Imagery18
Athletes who incorporate all the senses into their image will score high on what aspect of imagery?a. controllability
b. coordination
c. vividness
d. motivation
e. simplicity
*c. vividness
19. Imagery19
Which of the following is (are) basic to a successful imagery training program?a. realistic expectations
b. relaxed concentration
c. image in slow motion
d. a and b
*d. a and b
20. Imagery20
Which of the following statements is (are) true?a. Imagery can’t help performance; only hard physical practice can.
b. Imagery can make an average athlete great.
c. Imagery can improve performance if it is done systematically.
d. a and c
e. b and c
*c. Imagery can improve performance if it is done systematically.
21. Imagery21
An optimal time to use imagery isa. before and after practice
b. before and after competition
c. during breaks in the action
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*d. all of the above
22. Imagery22
Which of the following statements is (are) true?a. Individuals should image only successful events.
b. Individuals should image mostly unsuccessful events.
c. Individuals should image mostly successful events but also learn to cope with an occasional failure.
d. a and c
*c. Individuals should image mostly successful events but also learn to cope with an occasional failure.
23. Imagery23
In terms of the timing of imagery, it is best to image ina. real time
b. slow motion
c. fast motion
d. a combination of slow and fast motion
*a. real time
25. Imagery25
Which of the following statements is (are) true?a. A combination of physical and mental practice is better than physical practice alone, given the same time frame.
b. Mental practice can be employed as a substitute for physical practice if an athlete is injured.
c. Mental practice should be used as a supplement to physical practice rather than as a replacement for physical practice.
d. a and b
e. b and c
*e. b and c
29. Imagery29
Which of the following statements is (are) true?a. According to Mahoney and Avener’s study, gymnasts who qualified for the 1976 Olympic team tended to use external imagery.
b. External imagery refers to viewing yourself from the perspective of an external observer.
c. External imagery produces significantly better performance than internal imagery.
d. a and b
e. b and c
*b. External imagery refers to viewing yourself from the perspective of an external observer.
30. Imagery30
Which of the following situations involving the use of imagery might result in negative consequences or outcomes?a. imagery creating too much anxiety
b. imagery directing attention to irrelevant cues
c. imagery that makes a performer overconfident
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*d. all of the above
32. Imagery32
Psychological explanations for the effectiveness of imagery include a focus ona. perfectionism
b. enhancing motivation
c. achieving optimal arousal and focus on task-relevant cues
d. b and c
e. a and c
*d. b and c
1. Self-Confidence
Which of the following statements regarding self-efficacy is (are) true?a. Efficacy affects behavior change but behavior change does not affect efficacy.
b. Efficacy changes are related to changes in exercise adherence.
c. Exercise behavior can influence feelings of efficacy.
d. b and c
e. a and c
*d. b and c
2. Self-Confidence 2
One’s confidence can change as the situation changes. This is known asa. trait self-confidence
b. state self-confidence
c. situational self-confidence
d. cognitive self-confidence
e. naturally occurring self-confidence
*b. state self-confidence
3. Self-Confidence 3
Sport self-confidence is currently viewed asa. a trait variable
b. a state variable
c. statelike or traitlike depending on the situation
d. an affective variable
e. a cognitive variable
*c. statelike or traitlike
4. Self-Confidence 4
The probable reason that approximately a dozen runners broke the 4-minute barrier within one year after Roger Bannister originally did was theira. enhanced training procedures
b. improved equipment
c. faster tracks
d. expectations that it could be done
e. superior coaching
*d. expectations that it could be done
5. Self-Confidence 5
Confidence is seen as multidimensional, consisting of confidence ina. one’s ability to execute physical skills
b. one’s level of fitness
c. one’s psychological skills
d. all of the above
e. a and c
*d. all of the above
8. Self-Confidence 8
Coaches often form expectations of athletes based ona. performance information and media reports
b. performance information and person cues
c. person cues and media reports
d. scouting and media reports
e. person cues and scouting reports
*b. performance information and person cues
9. Self-Confidence 9
Which of the following is (are) true?a. Coaches spend more time with high-expectancy athletes.
b. Coaches show more positive affect to high-expectancy athletes.
c. Coaches spend more time with low-expectancy athletes.
d. a and b
e. b and c
*d. a and b
13. Self-Confidence13
Self-efficacy theory was originated bya. Charley Hardy
b. Tara Scanlan
c. Albert Bandura
d. Larry Brawley
e. Joseph Wolpe
*c. Albert Bandura
15. Self-Confidence15
Self-efficacy has been used interchangeably witha. self-esteem
b. self-confidence
c. self-motivation
d. self-concept
e. self-fulfilling prophecy
*b. self-confidence
16. Self-Confidence16
Confidence can be improved bya. judgmental thinking
b. acting confidently
c. using imagery
d. b and c
e. a and b
*d. b and c
17. Self-Confidence17
If you want to avoid breaking down an individual’s self-confidence,a. don’t criticize people for inconsequential errors
b. don’t criticize the behavior; criticize the person
c. don’t use sarcasm to motivate people
d. a and c
*d. a and c
19. Self-Confidence19
Collective efficacy refers toa. each individual’s perception of the efficacy of the team as a whole
b. the aggregate of each individual’s own self-efficacy
c. the coach’s view of the efficacy of the team as a whole
d. the belief that the team can win the championship
*a. each individual’s perception of the efficacy of the team as a whole
20. Self-Confidence20
Recent research has identified nine sources of sport self-confidence. These fit into which of the following categories?a. climate (environment)
b. self-regulation
c. arousal
d. a and b
e. b and c
*d. a and b
21. Self-Confidence21
According to the latest thinking, self-efficacy is now calleda. self-regulatory efficacy
b. self-improvement
c. self-esteem
d. self-worth
e. self-monitoring
*a. self-regulatory efficacy
24. Self-Confidence24
The relationship between confidence and performance isa. positive linear
b. negative linear
c. curvilinear
d. negatively accelerated
e. positively accelerated
*c. curvilinear
25. Self-Confidence25
Research has indicated that live and filmed modeling increases self-efficacy in muscular-endurance tasks. This is an example ofa. verbal persuasion
b. vicarious experiences
c. performance accomplishments
d. emotional arousal
e. parental expectations
*b. vicarious experiences
27. Self-Confidence27
The strongest and most dependable information on which to base self-efficacy judgments comes froma. vicarious experiences
b. performance accomplishments
c. emotional states
d. verbal persuasion
e. physiological states
*b. performance accomplishments
30. Self-Confidence29
Which of the following points about self-efficacy theory is (are) true?a. Self-efficacy affects effort expenditure and persistence.
b. Self-efficacy plus ability are enough for success.
c. Self-efficacy is task specific.
d. a and c
*d. a and c
35. Self-Confidence34
The key psychological variable regarding psychological momentum isa. anxiety
b. motivation
c. confidence
d. attentional focus
e. perfectionism
*c. confidence
37. Self-Confidence36
According to research on coaching efficacy, coaches higher in self efficacy (compared to those lower in self-efficacy)a. were better able to control their emotions
b. were lower in emotional intelligence
c. had higher winning percentages
d. a and c
*d. a and c
1. Goal Setting
It is recommended that appropriate goals bea. short-term only
b. long-term only
c. a combination of short- and long-term
d. short-term early in the season, then long-term midway through the season
e. either short-term or long-term depending on the way you phrase your generalized goals
*c. a combination of short- and long-term
2. Goal Setting 2
Focusing on performance (as opposed to outcome goals) during competition has been shown to be associated with _____ anxiety and _____ performance.a. more; poorer
b. less; superior
c. more; superior
d. less; poorer
e. none of the above
*b. less; superior
. Goal Setting 4
Studies of goal setting in business have concluded thata. although goals work in some situations, more often than not, specific goals are not better than “do your best” goals
b. it does not matter how difficult your goals are—any goal will be effective
c. goal setting works very well
d. goal setting is effective but only when the goals are easy
*c. goal setting works very well
6. Goal Setting 6
Directing a performer’s attention to important elements of a skill isa. one way in which goal setting can influence performance
b. one indirect thought process that explains goal setting’s impact on athletes
c. not really a part of a systematic goal-setting program because most athletes can direct their own attention appropriately
d. the same thing as mobilizing the athlete’s effort
e. b and c
*a. one way in which goal setting can influence performance
7. Goal Setting 7
The mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of goal setting includesa. directing the performer’s attention to important elements of a skill
b. mobilizing effort and increasing persistence by providing incentives
c. the development and employment of new learning strategies
d. all of the above
e. a and b
*d. all of the above
10. Goal Setting10
Having a goal to win the race is an example of a(n) _____ goal, whereas having a goal to “improve my best time” is an example of a(n) ______ goal.a. outcome; performance
b. process; outcome
c. outcome; ego-oriented
d. subjective; objective
e. a and c
*a. outcome; performance
11. Goal Setting11
According to the text, goals should bea. extremely difficult so that only 10% of your players can reach them
b. easy enough to achieve so that self-esteem is enhanced
c. difficult enough to be a challenge, yet realistic enough to achieve
d. set to the same value (e.g., the same score, the same time) for everyone on the same team so that no one is singled out as a favorite
e. c and d
*c. difficult enough to be a challenge, yet realistic enough to achieve
12. Goal Setting12
Which of the following is NOT a common obstacle in setting goals?a. It is too time consuming.
b. There are previous negative experiences in setting goals.
c. Goals are too unstructured.
d. a and c
e. b and c
*c. Goals are too unstructured.
13. Goal Setting13
The phrase “out of sight, out of mind” is a reminder toa. write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen
b. write your goals down and put them secretly away, only to be reread at the end of the season
c. use visualization when you set your performance goals
d. sign a behavioral contract with your coach or parents, which should be placed in a drawer (or some safe place) and reevaluated once a year
e. constantly use self-talk while competing to refresh your memory of your goal
*a. write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen
15. Goal Setting15
Which of the following is (are) a common problem(s) when setting goals?a. setting too few goals
b. failing to adjust goals
c. failing to recognize individual differences
d. b and c
*d. b and c
16. Goal Setting16
A formal assessment of an athlete’s current ability or needs isa. part of the instructor’s or leader’s preparation stage of implementing a goal-setting program
b. great for identifying what areas you think the athlete needs to improve
c. part of the education and acquisition stage of implementing a goal-setting program
d. a and b
*d. a and b
17. Goal Setting17
When formulating a goal-setting program with a novice goal setter, it is best toa. help the person set multiple goals, such as skill goals, concentration goals, and technique goals
b. help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
c. let the person choose the top two goals from a list of possible goals that you create for her
d. let the person decide on the type and number of goals to pursue
*b. help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
18. Goal Setting18
It is important to _____ throughout the entire goal-setting process.a. provide feedback
b. provide support
c. provide encouragement
d. reevaluate goals
e. all of the above
*e. all of the above
19. Goal Setting19
In developing a goal-setting program, it is important for individuals to seta. only performance goals
b. performance and process goals
c. process and outcome goals
d. process, performance, and outcome goals
e. performance and outcome goals
*d. process, performance, and outcome goals
20. Goal Setting20
Which of the following is (are) useful for setting team goals?a. establishing short-term goals first
b. monitoring progress toward team goals
c. fostering team confidence concerning team goals
d. b and c
*d. b and c
21. Goal Setting21
Which of the following is (are) true regarding goal-setting practices of high school and collegiate coaches?a. The most important part of goal commitment is goal specificity.
b. Coaches were consistent in writing down their goals.
c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.
d. a and b
e. a and c
*c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.
22. Goal Setting22
“Chip a bucket of golf balls onto a practice green three days a week” is an example ofa. a goal that is much too general to be effective
b. a performance goal that is both specific and realistic
c. a strategy for attaining the goal of “lower my handicap by three strokes”
d. an inflexible strategy for attaining a goal because it leaves no room for possible interruptions in your schedule
e. a and d
*c. a strategy for attaining the goal of “lower my handicap by three strokes”
23. Goal Setting23
Simply telling an athlete to “do your best” isa. fine for younger kids
b. effective when the sport is well learned
c. not specific enough
d. effective for developing an athlete’s commitment
*c. not specific enough
1. Concentration
Which of the following would NOT be classified as an internal distracter?a. attending to past events
b. attending to future events
c. overly analyzing body mechanics
d. crowd noise
e. fatigue
*d. crowd noise
2. Concentration 2
Which of the following is NOT a key element included in most definitions of concentration?a. the ability to focus attention on the relevant cues
b. maintaining attentional focus for the duration of the competition
c. the ability to narrow attentional focus in all situations
d. having the proper attentional focus depending on the situation
*c. the ability to narrow attentional focus in all situations
5. Concentration 5
The narrowing and internal focus associated with choking can result ina. impaired timing
b. increased coordination
c. poor judgment and decision making
d. a and c
e. a and b
*d. a and c
6. Concentration 6
According to the text, “choking” should be defined asa. a bad performance at a critical time of competition
b. a process that leads to impaired performance
c. making a mistake that costs you or your team a victory
d. making a mistake that is emotionally important to an athlete
*b. a process that leads to impaired performance
8. Concentration 8
Athletes with a preference for a broad-external focusa. are seldom distracted by an audience
b. rarely try too hard to please others
c. seem to notice everything that is happening around them
d. are well prepared to act as a coach or informal leader
e. b and c
*c. seem to notice everything that is happening around them
9. Concentration 9
“Cue” words are often effective becausea. they can help trigger a particular response
b. they can be motivational or emotionally stimulating
c. they broaden attentional focus
d. a and b
e. b and c
*d. a and b
10. Concentration10
Future-oriented thinking (attending to events in the future)a. is common among younger athletes
b. involves seeing a past mistake while focusing on the present
c. often takes the form of “what about me” statements
d. a and c
*a. is common among younger athletes
11. Concentration11
“No-look” passes in basketball are accomplished by usinga. a narrow-internal attentional focus
b. advanced cues to predict teammates’ future movements
c. several different types of attentional strategies
d. a narrow-external attentional focus
*b. advanced cues to predict teammates’ future movements
12. Concentration12
Research investigating differences between experts and novices concludes that these differences are in large part due to experts’ ability toa. attend more to advance information to make faster decisions
b. predict the flight pattern of a ball
c. use “tunnel vision”
d. a and b
*d. a and b
13. Concentration13
Top athletes seem to be able to do just the right thing at just the right time. From an attentional perspective, research has shown that this is mostly due to their ability toa. analyze situations more quickly and use more anticipatory cues
b. use a narrow-external focus
c. use a broad-external focus
d. use a narrow-internal focus
e. analyze situations by using imagery and positive self-talk
*a. analyze situations more quickly and use more anticipatory cues
15. Concentration15
If a golfer shifts attention just before a tee shot, from the length of the fairway and the direction of the wind to focusing only on the ball, her attention has shifted from _____ to _____.a. broad-internal; narrow-external
b. broad-internal; narrow-internal
c. broad-external; narrow-internal
d. broad-external; narrow-external
*d. broad-external; narrow-external
16. Concentration16
An example of Nideffer’s broad-external type of attentional focus isa. a basketball point guard’s rapidly assessing the positioning of the defense while on a fast break
b. a coach’s analyzing the game plan prior to the start of the competition
c. a baseball pitcher’s focusing on the catcher’s mitt just before beginning his pitch
d. a wrestler’s practicing mental imagery on the bus ride to a meet
e. a basketball player’s sighting the rim while on the free-throw line
*a. a basketball point guard’s rapidly assessing the positioning of the defense while on a fast break
17. Concentration17
Which of the following best represents William James’ classic description of attention?a. It involves the ability to pay attention to several things at once.
b. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.
c. It involves components of both width and direction.
d. It involves the components of both internality and stability.
*b. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.
18. Concentration18
Entirely focusing on body mechanics and movementsa. usually helps perform a skill during competition
b. may be inappropriate once a skill becomes automatic
c. may be detrimental to performance because the mind gets in the way of the body
d. a and b
e. b and c
*e. b and c
19. Concentration19
Using a trigger word to stop negative self-statements is calleda. thought stopping
b. attentional narrowing
c. external attentional focus
d. peripheral narrowing
e. tunnel vision
*a. thought stopping
20. Concentration20
Tennis and baseball players are able to successfully hit balls traveling toward them at high speeds becausea. they have learned to watch the ball hit their racket (or bat)
b. they have learned to predict the flight of the ball by using advanced attentional cues
c. they have learned to use a narrow-external focus
d. they have learned to rapidly shift their attentional focus
e. they have learned to use a broad-external focus
*b. they have learned to predict the flight of the ball by using advanced attentional cues
21. Concentration21
From an attentional perspective, overlearning of skillsa. makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention
b. allows for attentional selectivity
c. produces higher amounts of internal attentional control
d. allows for higher amounts of external attentional control
*a. makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention
22. Concentration22
Developing competitive plans should focus on what type of goals?a. outcome goals
b. technical goals
c. performance goals
d. process goals
e. product goals
*d. process goals
23. Concentration23
In preparing for a major competition, many elite athletes structure training to put themselves under the same sort of pressure encountered during the actual competition. This is an example ofa. mental rehearsal
b. precompetitive routines
c. precompetitive plans
d. simulation training
e. cognitive-behavioral interventions
*d. simulation training
25. Concentration25
Psychophysiological research on attentional processes in archers and pistol shooters has revealed that accuracy is increased when performers’ brain waves are in which frequency?a. beta
b. alpha
c. delta
d. gamma
e. creatine
*b. alpha
26. Concentration26
According to Nideffer, effective attenders indicate that they cana. deal well with a multitude of stimuli from both external and internal sources
b. effectively switch their attention from broad to narrow focus when necessary
c. attend to many stimuli (both internally and externally) while often becoming overloaded with too much information
d. a and b
e. a and c
*d. a and b
28. Concentration28
Just before shooting, elite pistol shooters displaya. increased galvanic skin responses
b. cardiac acceleration
c. cardiac deceleration
d. acceleration of the autonomic nervous system
e. reduced blood pressure
*c. cardiac deceleration
31. Concentration31
Why would you want to have a friend wave his arms around you while you are focusing on a basketball?a. to assist you in shifting your attention from the ball to the waving arms
b. to help you in your search for irrelevant cues
c. to force you to maintain concentration on the ball
d. a and c
*c. to force you to maintain concentration on the ball
34. Concentration34
Telling yourself to focus is probably best defined asa. establishing a routine to be used primarily during “down” times
b. a method to keep attention focused through the use of eye control
c. a cue word for bringing you back into a present focus
d. an exercise that enables you to practice shifting attentional focus
e. the opposite of “stop!” as an attention-focusing tool
*c. a cue word for bringing you back into a present focus
35. Concentration
Ironic processes in sport refers toa. ironically performing movement
b. the idea that trying not to perform an action can trigger its occurrence accidentally
c. doing something an athlete is not trained to do
d. performing well even with little experience
*b. the idea that trying not to perform an action can trigger its occurrence accidentally
36. Concentration35
A response to either good or bad performances that causes a personal, ego-involved reaction during competition is known asa. judgmental thinking
b. nonjudgmental thinking
c. ego thought
d. paralysis by analysis
*a. judgmental thinking
37. Concentration36
To improve concentration, an athlete shoulda. practice without distractions present
b. establish routines
c. practice eye control
d. b and c
*d. b and c
38. Concentration37
Which of the following is (are) a major process(es) involved in explaining the attention-performance relationship?a. attentional selectivity
b. attentional capacity
c. attentional reciprocity
d. a and c
e. a and b
*e. a and b
39. Concentration38
Most theories investigating the role of attention in performance have used what type of approach?a. information-processing
b. attentional control
c. conscious control process
d. attentional-arousal
e. limited-capacity
*a. information-processing
40. Concentration39
The concept of attentional alertness operates under the assumption that increases in arousala. narrows attention
b. broadens attention
c. enhances attention
d. disrupts attention
*a. narrows attention
41. Concentration40
Research has indicated that paying attention to step-by-step instructions is most helpfula. for elite performers
b. for new learners
c. for closed skills
d. for open skills
e. continuous skills
*b. for new learners
42. Concentration41
Which of the following is (are) a principle(s) of effective concentration?a. A focused state of mind requires intentional mental effort.
b. Athletes can consciously focus on more than one thought at a time.
c. During peak performance there is no difference between an athlete’s thoughts and actions.
d. a and c
e. b and c
*d. a and c
43. Concentration42
The risk of trying to maintain concentration throughout a competition isa. losing concentration due to fatigue
b. too many thoughts
c. attentional selectivity
d. past-oriented thinking
e. future-oriented thinking
*a. losing concentration due to fatigue
44. Concentration43
Controlled processing is mental processing that requiresa. selective attention
b. conscious attention
c. no attention
d. external attention
e. internal attention
*b. conscious attention
45. Concentration44
Skilled performers should focus ona. internal factors
b. external factors
c. body mechanics
d. intrinsic cues
e. mental representations of the skill
*b. external factors
46. Concentration45
Inattentional blindness meansa. narrowing attentional focus resulting in missing important cues
b. being too broad in attention and missing internal cues
c. becoming blind to cues due to listening to other players
d. not having sufficient motivation, resulting in inappropriate focus
e. having an external focus thus becoming blind to internal cues
*a. narrowing attentional focus resulting in missing important cues

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