Psych Test 2

Infants develop behavioral schemes, whereas children develop _____ schemes
Mental
Nine-year-old AJ enjoys participating in organized sports. He is developing an idea of belonging to a team. AJ’s concept of being a team member is an example of a(n)
Scheme
The cognitive process of assimilation occurs when individuals
use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences.
Lexi calls every animal she sees a cat. This is an example of
assimilation.
Devin plays in the sand for the first time. Instead of digging in it, he tries to scoop and throw it, just like he plays with water in his bathtub. This is an example of
assimilation.
Tim understands that vehicles may be cars, buses, trucks, or vans. This is an example of
accommodation.
The cognitive process of accommodation occurs when individuals
adjust old schemes to fit new information.
Eventually children learn not to put everything in their mouths. This is an example of
accommodation.
Matthew has scattered ideas about how to compete in different sports. He is slowly constructing a concept of playing on a team. According to Piaget, Matthew is
organizing.
Cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world is called
disequilibrium.
Daniel is confused when his mother prompts him to say hello to a person he doesn’t know, because he understands the “don’t talk to strangers” rule. Daniel is in
disequilibrium.
According to Piaget, what is a child’s motivation for change?
an internal search for equilibrium.
Piaget’s stages signify
qualitative differences in cognition.
Which of Piaget’s stages lasts from birth to about 2 years of age?
Sensorimotor.
Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s cognitive developmental stages?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Rooting and sucking occur during the first sensorimotor substage called
simple reflexes.
When 3-week-old Kierra is held horizontally, she turns her head toward the adult and starts sucking. This is an example of which sensorimotor substage?
First habits.
Cole kicks his legs when he listens to his lullaby CD at bedtime. When he wakes in the morning, he starts kicking in an attempt to start the music. This is an example of a
primary circular reaction.
What is the main difference between a reflex and a habit?
Habits do not require an eliciting stimulus.
A scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separate from its eliciting stimulus is called a
habit.
Todd loves the toys on his infant bouncer seat and hits them frequently for the sake of experiencing fascination. He is in which sensorimotor substage?
secondary circular reactions.
Baby Kale sees a Lego on the floor. He picks it up and looks at it while turning it around and moving it from one hand to the other. Kale is in which of Piaget’s sensorimotor substages?
coordination of secondary circular reactions.
Baby Dennis sees a ball on the floor. He picks it up, looks at it carefully, and then bangs it on the ground. He picks it up again, holds it over his head, and drops it. Then he picks it up and throws it. Dennis continues playing for several minutes. Dennis is in which of Piaget’s sensorimotor substages?
tertiary circular reactions.
Gabbi bangs her spoon on her highchair to indicate that she would like more Cheerios. Her spoon is a symbol of eating. Gabbi is in which sensorimotor substage?
internalization of schemes.
Madeline leaves her 3-month-old son with a childcare provider. Piaget would argue that Madeline’s son does not miss Madeline because he has not developed
object permanence.
Mimi crawls into the hallway to look for her mother after she leaves the room. According to Piaget, this shows Mimi is capable of
object permanence.
Object permanence is important because it means that infants are able to
mentally represent objects.
Baby Alec fusses when his brother takes away a toy. Alec has developed
object permanence.
Which of the following would be impossible without object permanence?
Thinking of your mother while she is at work.
When her mother takes away her stuffed rabbit, Barbara looks to her toy box rather than behind her mother’s back. Barbara has committed a(n)
A-not-B error.
Trent watches his mother hide a block under one of two cups and lifts the correct cup to retrieve the block. When his mother hides the block under the other cup, he still lifts the original cup to search for the block. Trent has demonstrated a(n)
A-not-B error.
The research of Spelke and Baillargeon shows that infants as young as 3 or 4 months old are capable of object permanence. Critics question whether an infant’s _____ is a valid measure of object permanence.
Longer looking time.
The preoperational stage lasts from ages
2 to 7.
Piaget labeled his second stage preoperational thought, meaning that children in this phase
cannot yet use internalized actions to do mentally what they used to only do physically.
Five-year-old Marta draws a picture with purple, blue, green, yellow, and brown. “It’s a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains. Marta is showing evidence of
symbolic function.
Angie asks her grandmother over the phone, “Do you like my new shirt that I’m wearing?” This is an example of
egocentrism.
Animism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child’s thinking, because they indicate an inability to
distinguish among different perspectives.
Karl covers his stuffed toys before bedtime to make sure they are not cold. This is an example of
animism.
Adam cries that the tree root tripped him. This is an example of
animism.
During Piaget’s intuitive thought substage, a child’s reasoning is fairly
primitive.
Janie is exhausting her father with a barrage of “why” questions. She is trying to figure out why things are the way they are. Janie is in Piaget’s
intuitive thought substage.
According to Piaget, which of the following is characteristic of a child in the preoperational stage?
They tend to ask a barrage of questions.
The belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects or situations despite superficial changes is called
conservation.
Nathan and Sara are eating granola bars. Sara breaks her bar in half. Nathan gets upset because Sara has two granola bars. Nathan has not developed the concept of
conservation.
Focusing attention on one characteristic of an object or concept to the exclusion of all others is
centration.
A child who understands that the amount of clay does not differ when it is stretched into a long strip or rolled into a large ball has grasped the concept of
conservation.
In explaining the ability to conserve, Piaget focuses on _____.
Centration.
What does Gelman (1969) indicate as an important factor in a child’s performance on conservation tasks?
Attention.
The concrete operational stage lasts from ages
7 through 11.
Which of the following characterizes the concrete operational stage?
Logic replaces intuition if it can be applied to a visible example.
A reversible mental action on a real object is a
concrete operation.
Cassidy understands that her mother is also her grandparents’ daughter, her cousin’s aunt, and her uncle’s sister. This is an example of
classification.
Brenda sorts buttons by shape, size, type, or color. Classification is a characteristic of which Piagetian stage?
Concrete operational.
Julio understands that he is older than his brother and younger than his sister. This is an example of
seriation.
A teacher asks his class to line up according to height. Todd knows that he must be taller than the person he stands in front of and shorter than the person he stands behind. He also recognizes that everyone in front of him is taller than everyone behind him. This is an example of
transitivity.
The formal operational stage appears between ages
11 and 15.
Marni thinks about how the world could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for the environment. Marni is in which of Piaget’s stages? Formal operational.
Formal operational
According to Piaget, adolescents differ from younger children in that younger children cannot
systematically and mentally test hypotheses.
“What if the sun were to explode?” asks Alene. “But it never has,” replies Janis. “But what if it DID?” insists Alene. In this example, Alene is exhibiting __________ thought, whereas Janis is showing __________ thought.
Abstract ; concrete.
Thirteen-year-old Austin fairs well when he plays 20 Questions with his younger brother, because Austin is able to effectively use
hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
Which of the following stages do children usually enter later than Piaget thought?
Formal operational stage.
Which of the following is true of the formal operational stage?
Many American adults never become formal operational thinkers.
Piaget argues that the initial development of formal operations is largely dominated by _____. Assimilation.
assimilation
While preparing his science project, Carlos systematically tests his best guess on his subject and draws conclusions from the results. What formal operation is he using? reasoning.
hypothetical-deductive
Younger children do not engage in the same type of egocentric thought as adolescents, because younger children
cannot think abstractly or from another’s point of view.
Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by
a heightened self-consciousness.
Jillian feels like she is the center of attention and acts as though she were “on stage.” This aspect of adolescent egocentrism is known as
the imaginary audience.
Halene is sure that her classmates are staring at her new haircut. This is an example of
an imaginary audience.
Some adolescents engage in risky behaviors, because they believe they are invulnerable to the negative consequences of these actions. This is an example of
a personal fable.
Sophie feels that her parents do not understand her. This is an example of
a personal fable.
Following the homecoming game, a group of senior high school students went to a party where they drank alcohol and drove home. This behavior is MOST likely linked to their adolescent sense of
invulnerability.
Jamal is a 17-year-old high school student. Which of the following statements about his cognitive stage of development is TRUE?
Jamal may still think in concrete operational ways and may not become a formal operational thinker.
Which of the following BEST characterizes cognitive development according to Jean Piaget?
Children construct their own understandings about how the world works.
Which of the following teaching methods would a Piagetian science teacher employ?
After receiving general guidelines, students would design and complete individual science projects and report on findings and learning.
A kindergarten teacher instructs parent volunteers to take a Piagetian approach when interacting with his students during learning center time. He recommends the volunteers
allow the children to learn by doing things themselves and ask open-ended questions to stimulate thinking.
Ms. Skinner espouses Piagetian assessment. Which of the following is she likely to use to evaluate her students?
frequent and open ended reasoning questions.
A mother spends an hour a day instructing her infant with flashcards and video lessons. What would Piaget say the likely result of this instruction will be?
The child’s cognitive development will progress similarly to noninstructed peers.
Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s cognitive development theory? thought.
Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier and some later than Piaget thought
In assessing the ability to conserve, research findings indicate that this skill
improves with training and practice.
Which of the following do Neo-Piagetians argue should have more emphasis in cognitive developmental theory?
attention, memory, and strategy
Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children
actively construct their knowledge and understanding.
Piaget’s theory of development centered on interaction with the physical world, while Vygotsky’s focused on
social interaction.
Vygotsky differs from Piaget in how he stresses the importance of _____ for cognitive development.
other people.
According to Vygotsky, the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone, but that can be learned with guidance and assistance, is
the zone of proximal development.
Breanne is learning to walk. She can take a few steps if she holds on to a piece of furniture, but she can only walk into the middle of the room if a parent holds her hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Breanne’s zone of proximal development for walking?
walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture.
Breanne is learning to walk. She can take a few steps if she holds on to a piece of furniture, but she can only walk into the middle of the room if a parent holds her hands. Which of the following represents the “buds” or “flowers” of development according to Vygotsky?
learning to walk by having a parent hold her hands.
Ms. Whitaker incorporates peer tutoring in her classroom. With whose theory does this method fit?
Vygotsky.
Mr. Kaird incorporates peer tutoring in his classroom. This is an example of
scaffolding.
Changing the level of support in the zone of proximal development is labeled
scaffolding.
When working with young children, adults often provide assistance, instruction, and other support. As children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, Vygotsky recommends that adults begin to withdraw these supports. This demonstrates the concept of
scaffolding.
Vygotsky believed that private speech is
an important tool of thought.
Brent talks himself through his math calculation homework. This is an example of
private speech.
What did Vygotsky believe about the development of thought and language?
Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
Vygotsky’s theory states that children use speech not only for social communication but also for
problem solving.
Private speech has been shown to improve all of the following EXCEPT
empathic understanding.
When self-talk becomes second nature to children and they can act without verbalizing, they have begun to use
inner speech.
Mrs. Marsden hears a student arranging story cards. “Hmm, I think this one goes first and next is that one. No, maybe that one.” She is witnessing the student’s
private speech for problem solving.
According to Vygotsky, how should a teacher help a student with new learning?
ask the student how you can help.
According to Vygotsky, the main purpose of assessment should be to
determine a student’s zone of proximal development in order to design further instruction.
Mr. Jericho, an elementary school math teacher, needs to teach his students how to make change. Vygotsky would recommend that he
set up a class store and have students rotate as acting cashiers.
Tools of the Mind is an early childhood education curriculum that emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT
life skills, such as cooking and sewing.
Children in Tools of the Mind classrooms exhibit more advanced skills in __________ than their peers in other early childhood programs.
All of these (spelling accurately, understanding the concept of a sentence, writing complex sentences).
According to Piaget and Vygotsky, a teacher’s role is that of
facilitator.
Neither Vygotsky’s nor Piaget’s theory had much to say about
adult cognitive development.
Labouvie-Vief (1986) argued that as young adults face the constraints of reality
idealistic thought decreases.
According to Schaie (1977), as young adults begin working, cognitive development switches from
acquiring to applying knowledge.
Which statement summarizes what Perry (1970) believes about the cognitive level of a typical adolescent?
“Right is right, and wrong is wrong.”
According to William Perry, adult thinking is
reflective and relativistic. Some theorists have pieced together descriptions of a fifth Piagetian stage labeled: postformal.
Which of the following is NOT an element of postformal thought?
Idealistic thought.
The cognitive developmental theories of Vygotsky, Piaget, and information processing share a focus on how people
think.
Which processes are required for effective information processing at any age?
Attention, memory, and thinking.
The information-processing approach to cognitive development is concerned mainly with
how people manipulate, monitor, and manage information.
Which of the following is TRUE according to the information-processing approach?
Overlap exists among the cognitive processes.
According to Siegler, which three mechanisms work together to create changes in children’s cognitive skills?
Encoding, automatization, and strategy construction
What is the process by which information gets into memory?
Encoding.
Lane is learning to recognize lowercase letters. He is able to do this by ignoring the fact that some lowercase letters do not look like their uppercase counterparts. This is an example of
Encoding.
Tim is learning about Roman numerals. He _____ the relevant fact that the symbols 5 and V represent the same amount and _____ the irrelevant differences in their shape.
Encodes; ignores.
Dallas no longer has to think about each letter in a word as he is reading. This skill is becoming more automatic, because Dallas
practices reading.
Learning to drive a car requires deliberate coordination of mental processes but eventually becomes nearly effortless. This is the concept of
automaticity.
The creation of a new procedure for processing information is
Strategy construction.
“Knowing about knowing” is called
metacognition.
Siegler argues that children learn to use what they have learned in the past to adapt their responses to new situations. This is known as
self-modification.
Which of the following influences what we can do with information?
Processing speed.
Which of the following statements accurately describes processing speed?
Processing speed increases across the childhood years.
In Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study, processing speed began to decline in
middle adulthood.
Which of the following may help older adults compensate for declines in processing speed? Exercise.
excercise
Which of the following statements regarding the decline of reaction time is correct?
Health and exercise can slow the decline in processing speed.
Stacy is vigilant in her watch for any change in her baby’s breathing. This is an example of _____ attention.
Sustained.
Attention in infancy to the “what” and “where” are examples of a _____ process.
Orientating.
Rob is listening to Katie’s anecdote amidst the loud music and laughter of many others at the party. This is an example of _____ attention.
Selective.
_____ attention enables infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a new stimulus as it becomes familiar.
Sustained.
Planning, monitoring, and attending to goals are examples of _____ attention.
Executive.
Monica rotates the presentation of her infant’s toys every few weeks, because she doesn’t want him to become bored or
habituated.
Which of the following is an important skill for learning in the classroom?
Selective attention.
Ruth is listening to her teacher despite the noise coming from a nearby classroom. Her attention allocation is
selective.
Jon listens to his favorite CD while he studies for tomorrow’s exam. This is an example of _____ attention.
Divided.
Joint attention requires all of the following EXCEPT
repeating the same form of stimulation.
One-year-old Harry’s mother looks outside at a large dog passing by. Harry looks outside, too. This is an example of
joint attention.
Baby Emily and her mother often engage in joint attention. Emily will most likely do which of the following?
Say her first word earlier.
A police officer visits Laura’s preschool class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings balloons. Later, Laura tells her parents about the police officer and the balloons but can’t remember any of the discussed safety rules. Laura paid more attention to what was
salient.
Kennedy is playing a computer game that shows a monster falling in mud when the answer is wrong. Kennedy cares less about answering incorrectly and more about watching the humorous event. The monster falling in mud is more
salient.
In which of the following areas is preschool children’s control of attention deficient?
Planfulness.
Young children advance in executive attention and sustained attention due, in part, to advances in which of the following?
Comprehension and language.
The processing of irrelevant information decreases rapidly during
adolescence.
Older adults are frequently characterized as unsafe drivers. Declining driving skills may be due to an apparent decrease in
visual attention.
Lower levels of executive attention in older adults have been linked to
low blood pressure.
The retention of information over time is referred to as
memory.
What are the three processes required for memory?
Encoding, storage, and retrieval.
According to schema theory, people
mold memories to fit information that already exists in their minds.
At a family reunion, Uncle Joe told a story about his childhood. Which of the following statements is MOST likely true?
His story presents a somewhat distorted impression of the event.
Which of the following statements characterizes the schema theory of memory?
We reconstruct the past with distortions due to existing information.
Infants as young as _____ month(s) of age show a limited type of memory.
2.
The Rovee-Collier (1987, 2007) study in which infants kicked to try to move a familiar mobile, but not an unfamiliar one, indicates that young infants
can remember detailed actions and contexts.
Mandler’s main criticism of the Rovee-Collier studies on infant memory is that
these infants display only implicit memory.
Josh sorts and washes his laundry without having to read instructions. What type of memory is he using?
Implicit.
Most adults do not remember much from their first 3 years of life. This is the phenomenon of
infantile or childhood amnesia.
Infantile amnesia may be a due to
immature brain development in the prefrontal lobes.
Without rehearsal, how long can information remain in short-term memory?
15-30 seconds.
Which of the following enables conscious memories to improve throughout a child’s second year?
maturation of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in the brain
Working memory is
active in modifying information for decision-making and problem solving.
While Leah works on a science experiment, she is manipulating and assembling new information, making decisions, and solving problems. What type of memory is she using?
Working
Some experts believe that children should not testify in court because
they are susceptible to false suggestion.
All of the following are strategies to reduce suggestibility when interviewing children EXCEPT
wait to interview children until they are older because their long-term memory will improve.
While reading a book for literature class, Kelly tried to relate to the character’s struggles and note how they are similar and different from her own life. To improve her long-term memory of the book, Kelly is
making the content personally relevant.
While studying for a history exam, Michael finds it easier to recall details if he creates a mental picture relating to the information he is reviewing. What memory strategy is he using?
Imagery.
Jinni finds certain concepts from her human development class easy to remember, because she is able to associate the information with many of her own childhood experiences. What memory strategy is she using?
Elaboration.
Which of the following regarding fuzzy trace theory is true? Memory and reasoning skills are improved when older children begin to use gist rather than verbatim memory trace to recall information. Eighty-year-old Kathleen will show a steady decline in
working memory and processing speed.
The ability to consciously remember the past is known as
explicit memory.
“I remember my first vacation to Manhattan, New York, in 1949, and staying at the Casablanca Hotel,” says Mabel, who is 77 years old. This is an example of
episodic memory.
Devon recalls details of his seventh birthday party. What type of memory is he using?
Explicit.
Memory without conscious recollection is known as
implicit memory.
Derek no longer concentrates on keystrokes as he types. What type of memory is this?
Implicit.
Explicit memory is also known as declarative memory, while implicit memory is also known as _____ memory.
Procedural.
Sally tells a joke to her friend Helen. Helen smiles and responds, “I told you that joke yesterday!” Sally’s embarrassment is due to
source amnesia.
Most research shows that most babies do not show explicit memory until
6 to 12 months.
Rita remembers when she received a school award for perfect attendance. What type of memory is this?
Episodic.
General academic and field-of-expertise knowledge is labeled _____ memory.
Semantic.
Evie knows the capital cities of every state. What type of memory is this?
Semantic.
Mackenzie easily recalls events in her life but has difficulty remembering trivia. Mackenzie shows good _____ memory, but poor _____ memory.
Episodic; semantic.
Which type of memory is more likely to be forgotten?
Explicit.
Ninety-year-old Ben enjoys talking about growing up on a corn farm in Illinois. Given his age, Ben’s episodic memory is likely to be
Less accurate.
Memory about life’s events is labeled
Episodic.
Anna is trying to remember a quote she learned years ago. She can remember the class she heard it in and the professor that spoke it but not the actual quote. What type of memory does Anna have for this recollection?
Source.
Which of the following is 70-year-old Leo MOST likely to forget?
Items on that day’s grocery list.
Andrea is worried that she will forget to take her antibiotic prescription three times daily. Andrea feels her _____ memory is weak.
Prospective.
Research shows that adults remember more events from the second and third decades of their lives than from other decades. This is known as
Reminiscence bump.
Manipulating and transforming information in memory is called
thinking.
Ideas about what categories represent and how they are generalized are called
Concepts.
A young infant may believe that a bird is more like an airplane than an animal if the infant uses
perceptual categorization.
A child recognizes that an airplane is more like a car than a bird if the child uses
conceptual categorization.
Two-year old Lara likes to play with a blue ball. One day, she sees her mother put a globe on the table. How will Lara MOST likely categorize the globe? Ball.
Ball
Recent research shows that some very young children develop an intense interest in a specific category of objects or activities. Which of the following sets of categories would MOST likely interest 2-year-old Robert according to the findings?
Vehicles, machines, dinosaurs.
One-year-old Stanley is visiting a petting zoo. Which of the following MOST likely illustrates Stanley’s current ability to categorize objects?
Stanley points to the barn and says, “House!”
According to Langer (2005), _____ is being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life’s everyday activities.
Mindfulness.
Identifying and formulating questions and organizing thoughts are all parts of
critical thinking.
Critical thinking skills can be BEST developed when the teacher
allows students to discover processes on their own.
Dr. Cook encourages her students to wonder, probe, analyze, question, and reflect rather than learn facts by rote memorization. She values
critical thinking.
What can educators do to help children become better thinkers?
Encourage students to create and question.
What does Michael Pressley believe about training thinking skills in children?
Teachers should model and directly teach problem-solving strategies as well as provide evaluative feedback concerning strategy employment.
Which of the following aids in making an effective strategy become automatic? .
Practice
Which of the following is NOT one of Michael Pressley’s views about problem-solving instruction?
Children will develop strategies for problem solving on their own and need not be instructed.
Which of the following is TRUE of children’s effective problem solving?
Children often use more than one strategy when problem solving.
Being aware of options and available alternatives that allow for adaptation to situations is known as
Cognitive flexibility.
Which of the following is NOT true of adolescents’ decision-making ability? Adolescents tend to make better decisions when they are emotionally aroused. Which of the following impacts an adolescent’s decision to engage in risk-taking behaviors?
All of these (the presence of peers, being emotionally aroused, and lack of life experience).
The dual-process model argues that there are two cognitive systems, which complete with each other. They are _____ and _____.
Analytical; experimental
Which of the following is NOT a cognitive change that allows for improved critical thinking in adolescence?
improved joint attention.
During which part of the life span is expertise most likely to appear?
Middle adulthood.
In general, why are 40-year-olds better problem solvers than 20-year-olds?
They have more experience.
Compared to younger adults, older adults show greater activity in the frontal and parietal regions while they are engaging in tasks that require cognitive control processes such as
Attention.
Cognitive training programs show that older adults can improve their thinking skills, implying that
individuals may use other skills to compensate for cognitive decline.
Eighty-year-old Betty believes in the concept of “use it or lose it.” In which of the following activities should Betty engage in order to “use it” and reduce rate of cognitive decline?
All of these (regularly attend lectures and concerts, read daily, complete crossword puzzles).
Although training can improve the cognitive skills of older adults, there is some loss of
plasticity.
Jake is only 25 years old but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
Do crossword puzzles.
Which of the following older adults has the least successful strategy for improving his cognitive skills? Dwayne manages his finances using a computer program. Cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing is called
metacognition.
Knowledge about memory is called
metamemory.
The awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others is called
theory of mind.
Studies of theory of mind view the child as a(n) _____.
thinker who is trying to explain, predict, and understand people’s thoughts, feelings, and communications.
Which of the following would we expect a 3-year-old to understand about another person’s mental state?
Hiding an object conceals it from another person.
The realization that people can have false beliefs is fully developed in a majority of children by what age?
5 years old.
One of the significant developments in understanding others’ desires is
recognizing that someone else’s desires may differ from one’s own.
Which of the following preschool children would MOST likely perform well on theory of mind tasks?
A child with two older siblings.
Theory of mind tasks are difficult for children with
autism.
By age 6, children know that recognition is easier than recall, short lists are easier to remember than long lists, and that forgetting is more likely over time. They are developing
metamemory.
In general, older adults are as accurate as younger adults in
monitoring the encoding and retrieval of information.
There are many definitions of intelligence. Which of the following is the designation used in the textbook?
the ability to solve problems and adapt and learn from experiences
The term individual differences, as discussed in the text, refers to
differences among individuals that are stable over time.
Who proposed that practical knowledge should be considered part of intelligence?
Robert Sternberg
4. Who would support the notion that intelligence involves using the tools of the culture with help from mentors?
Lev Vygotsky
5. The French Ministry of Education asked Alfred Binet to create a method to determine which students
would not profit from typical school instruction.
6. Who developed the concept of mental age?
Alfred Binet
7. A bright child’s _____ age is considerably above his or her _____ age.
mental; chronological
8. Who coined the term “intelligence quotient”?
William Stern
9. What was the original numerical concept of an intelligence quotient?
mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
10. What are the content areas of the current Stanford-Binet intelligence test?
fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, and working memory
11. The Stanford-Binet has been shown to produce scores that approximate a normal distribution. This means that most test takers score
in the middle of the range of possible scores.
12. Who developed the WISC, WAIS, and WWPSI intelligence tests? David Wechsler
13. A person’s IQ, as measured on one of the Wechsler scales, is
a combination of a verbal and nonverbal IQ scores.
14. The effectiveness of a psychological test primarily depends on the
knowledge, skill, and integrity of the examiner.
15. Which of the following is true of the predictive validity of intelligence tests?
Scores correlate with school grades and achievement test performance at the time of testing and years later.
16. IQ scores should be considered with caution because
scores can lead to false expectations and generalizations.
17. Mr. Nanchet supervises a Future Business Leaders of America club and admits only those who score in the top 15 percent on an intelligence test because he feels that these students have the most potential to enter successful business careers. This use of an intelligence test is
inappropriate, because high scores are only moderately correlated with future job prestige and work performance.
18. Mary Ann scored a little above average on a general IQ test. She is a highly motivated, hard-working college graduate. Her performance in the workplace most likely will be
successful, because a range of factors predicts the majority of job success, including motivation and education.
19. To be effective, IQ scores should be
considered a single aspect of evaluation in conjunction with other information about the individual.
20. Who proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence?
Robert Sternberg
21. Tanisha scores high on traditional intelligence tests due to her strong memory, decision-making skills, and problem-solving abilities. Which Sternberg area is a strength for her?
Analytical
22. Which of the following types of intelligence are included in Sternberg’s theory?
analytical, creative, and practical
23. Eman’s test scores are not high, but he solves problems in unique, insightful ways. Which Sternberg area is a strength for him?
Creative
24. Sternberg and Gardner’s philosophies are similar in that they consider intelligence to be
multiple-factored.
25. According to Sternberg, students with which of the following abilities tend to be favored in conventional schools?
Analytical
26. Russell’s test scores are low, but he quickly grasps real-life problems and could be called “street smart.” Which Sternberg area is a strength for him?
Practical.
27. Which statement MOST closely matches Gardner’s theory of intelligence?
Humans have multiple intelligences only some of which are measured by IQ tests.
28. Someone who suffers localized brain damage may maintain functioning in other cognitive domains. This supports Gardner’s contention that
people have multiple intelligences.
29. Ms. Foyle employs multiple intelligence theory in her classroom because she believes that by exploring many cognitive domains children will
discover relative strengths and find something at which they excel.
30. Gemmy is a journalist and is trying to finish writing her first novel. According to Gardner, she most likely has good _____ intelligence.
Verbal.
31. Snea works as an engineer and her brother is an accountant. According to Gardner, they are both most likely strong in _____ intelligence.
Mathematical
32. Gardner’s concepts of ____ intelligence are most closely related to the traditional IQ test.
spatial and verbal
33. According to Gardner, Charles Darwin is high in _____ intelligence.
Naturalist
34. Spencer loves to sail and plays chess for fun. According to Gardner, he is most likely strong in _____ intelligence.
Spatial
35. Malian took dance for many years but stopped once she entered medical school. Now a highly regarded surgeon, she no longer has time to dance. According to Gardner, she is strong in _____ intelligence.
bodily kinesthetic
36. Marcus taught elementary school for several years before pursuing a career as a mental health counselor within the education system. According to Gardner, he is most likely strong in _____ intelligence.
Interpersonal
37. According to Gardner, psychologists should be high in _____ intelligence.
Intrapersonal
38. According to Gardner, philosophers demonstrate a form of _____ intelligence.
Existential
39. Colin does not earn high scores on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills.
bodily-kinesthetic
40. Gardner’s newest proposed type of intelligence is
existentialists
41. The term that Goleman, Salvoy, and Mayer use for the ability to perceive, express, understand, use, and manage feelings is
emotional intelligence.
42. Critics of emotional intelligence argue that
it broadens the concept of intelligence too widely.
43. Sternberg’s and Gardner’s theories of intelligence are alike in that both
include one or more categories related to social intelligence.
44. Critics of multiple intelligences argue that
the classifications are too arbitrary.
45. According to Nathan Brody, abstract reasoning, the capacity to acquire knowledge, and problem-solving ability comprises
general intelligence.
46. Some experts who support the notion of general intelligence believe that people also have specialized abilities such as spatial and mechanical skills. These skills comprise
specific intelligence.
47. Which part of the brain is MOST linked with high intelligence?
prefrontal cortex
48. The portion of the variance in a population that is attributed to genes is known as
heritability.
49. What is the heritability of intelligence?
.75
50. In one study, the amount parents communicated with their children was _____ correlated to Stanford-Binet IQ scores.
Positively
51. Rapidly increasing IQ test scores around the world point to the influence of environmental factors. This phenomenon is called the
Flynn effect.
52. In the nature versus nurture debate regarding intelligence, it is safe to say that intelligence
has a strong genetic influence but may be significantly influenced by environmental conditions.
53. Which of the following children would benefit MOST from a high-quality early intervention that includes education, parenting programs, and support services?
children living below the poverty line
54. Which of the following statements is NOT true about early intervention programs?
The benefits are no longer present after elementary school.
55. Cross-cultural studies have indicated that _____ and _____ intelligence can develop independently and may even conflict with each other.
practical; academic
56. What is the BEST explanation for why minorities achieve lower scores on IQ tests?
Environment
57. Many intelligence tests are biased because they
reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
58. Which of the following is the BEST example of a culturally fair test question?
“How is a cat and a dog alike?”
59. Which of the following would typically not be considered in the development of a culturally fair test?
family structure
60. On average, how do African American and Latino children score on IQ tests when compared to children from non-Latino White families?
10 to 15 points lower
61. What are the five components of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?
cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive
62. On the Bayley mental scale, 6-month-old Joshua should be able to
vocalize pleasure and displeasure.
63. The Fagan test uses the amount of time an infant looks at a _____ compared with the amount of time he/she looks at a _____ to estimate intelligence.
familiar object; new object
64. Baby Camille is given a series of pictures to look at. Some of these pictures she has seen before and others are new. The amount of time she spends looking at each picture is calculated to measure her intelligence. What test is being given?
Fagan test
65. By Ken’s first birthday, he should be able to do all of the following EXCEPT
jump rope for 1 minute.
66. Which if the following is NOT a characteristic seen in infants that correlate with intelligence?
Attachment
67. In one study, the correlation coefficient of measured IQ at ages 8 and 10 was .88. This shows a _____ correlation.
Strong positive
68. Dr. Smith is conducting a research study on intelligence. He gathers samples of 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old participants and compares their results on an IQ test. What type of research is Dr. Smith conducting?
Cross-sectional
69. Dr. Anderson is interested in how attention changes with age. He gathers a sample of 5-year-olds and tests them twice a year until they are 30. What type of study is Dr. Anderson conducting?
Longitudinal
70. According to John Horn, an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills comprise _____ intelligence.
Crystallized
71. According to John Horn, the ability to reason abstractly is _____ intelligence.
Fluid
72. John Horn believes that _____ intelligence continues to increase throughout the life span, whereas _____ intelligence begins to decline in middle adulthood.
Crystallized; fluid
73. A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is due to
Cohort effects
74. According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study, middle age is a time of
Peak performance for vocabulary
75. An adult in middle age will do MOST poorly on which of the following tasks?
Hitting the brakes when the light turns red
76. When Schaie assessed intellectual abilities cross-sectionally and longitudinally, which two abilities declined in middle age?
Numerical ability and perceptual speed
77. According to Baltes, the “hardware” or neurophysiological architecture of the brain is called
Cognitive mechanics
78. According to Baltes, the culture-based “software programs” of the mind are called
Cognitive pragmatics
79. According to Baltes, __________ decline with age, whereas __________ may actually improve.
cognitive mechanics; cognitive pragmatics
80. According to Baltes, expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters is called
Wisdom
81. According to research, wisdom is
Focused on life’s pragmatic concerns
82. Leonard has had varied life experiences and learned much from judicious mentors. He volunteers with disadvantaged youth and is open to new adventures. Baltes and associates would say that Leonard displays
Wisdom
83. Which of the following factors contributes the MOST to a person’s level of wisdom?
Life experience
84. Which of the following is true regarding Ardelt’s (2010) study on wisdom?
Overall there were no differences found between college-age and older adults.
85. Language is a form of communication—spoken, written, or signed—that is based on a system of
Symbols
86. Cases like the Wild Boy of Aveyron cause us to wonder whether language is
Due more to heredity or environment
87. Thirty students in a class are given the same list of eight words to use in generating sentences. Each student creates a unique sentence. This is an example of
Infinite generativity
88. The ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences with a finite set of words and rules is
Generativity.
89. The basic unit of sound in a language is a
phoneme
90. When babies babble “ba, ba, ba,” they are demonstrating knowledge of a
phoneme
91. The “ch” sound in church or change is an example of a
Phoneme
92. Morphology refers to
the units of meaning involved in word formation.
93. Which of the following statements about morphemes is TRUE?
All of these
94. Aiden asks his mom is she “bringed” his favorite toy with her. His addition of “ed” on the end of the word to make it past tense indicates an understanding of
Morphemes
95. Six-year-old Aspen addresses her teacher, “Me goed to the park. Is you goed too?” She is displaying problems with:
syntax
96. The fact that changes in word order can change the meaning of a sentence is an example of
Syntax
97. Which of the following statements regarding syntax is NOT true?
An understanding of English syntax is easily applicable to other languages.
98. In English we say “white house,” (adjective precedes noun), but in Spanish one would say “casa blanca” (noun precedes adjective). This example illustrates different rules of
Syntax
99. Words have semantic restrictions on how they can be used in sentences because
every word has required attributes related to meaning.
100. Which statement describes the sentence
“The pencil sang a lovely tune”? syntactically correct but semantically incorrect
101. The use of correct rules for conversation is part of the definition of
pragmatics
102. Twelve-year-old Cade is able to produce all of the sounds of speech and construct complete, accurate, meaningful sentences but struggles with taking turns in a discussion, recognizing humor and figurative language. He is having communication difficulty in the area of
Pragmatics
103. When 6-year-old Sebastian is at the pool, he sees a heavy woman in a black and white bathing suit and yells “orca!” This illustrates a violation of
Pragmatics
104. Which of the following statements is NOT true about an infant’s use of gestures?
Frequent use of gestures indicates a future language delay.
105. In a baby’s first year of life, what language development stage comes after crying?
Cooing
106. What primary function does vocalization (crying, cooing, babbling and gestures) accomplish for infants?
Attracts attention from their caregivers and others.
107. Research about the ability of infants to distinguish human speech sounds indicates that
infants gradually come to distinguish best the speech sounds of the language spoken around them.
108. According to Kuhl’s research, at birth, infants are “citizens of the world,” able to recognize sounds regardless of from which language the syllables come. At what age do infants get better at perceiving the changes in sounds in their own language?
6-12 months
109. Research on the ability of infants to understand words indicates that infants
understand words well before they can produce them
110. Why is it difficult for infants to detect word boundaries?
Adults don’t pause between words when they speak.
111. Which of the following statements about language development is TRUE?
Infants understand words before they speak them.
112. A child’s first words mainly consist of
important people, animals, vehicles, food, body parts, greeting terms.
113. A rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary that usually takes place between 18 and 24 months is known as
Vocabulary spurt.
114. Natalie has just turned 2 years old. About how many words are in her speaking vocabulary?
200
115. Jenny is at the zoo with her family. She points to each animal and says “doggie.” This illustrates
Overextension.
116. At what age can Emily expect her child to say, “Get shoes”?
18 to 24 months
117. Telegraphic speech is characterized by
short, precise words without grammatical markers.
118. Anthony holds up his glass and says, “Milk gone.” What type of speech pattern is this?
Telegraphic
119. All children acquire the particular features of a language
in a consistent order.
120. Berko’s study demonstrated children’s understanding of morphological rules. Because the words in the study were fictional, it is impressive to note that the children in the study
had abstracted the rules from language they had heard and applied them to novel situations.
121. When a child struggles with speech and language development, the professional who provides therapeutic intervention is a(n)
speech/language therapist.
122. As children move beyond two-word utterances, they begin using plural and possessive nouns, appropriate verb endings, prepositions, articles, and various forms of the verb “to be.” This is evidence that the children
know morphological rules
123. Children’s ability to make an initial connection between a word and its referent after only a limited exposure to the word is called
fast mapping
124. According to Berninger, children who enter elementary school with a small vocabulary are at risk for developing
reading problems
125. A pragmatic characteristic of a 4-year-old is that they
change their speech style to accommodate the listener.
126. Chad’s parents live on the poverty line. All of the following are important home literacy experiences for Chad’s language development EXCEPT
amount of time his mother spends talking to him
127. According to Hart and Risley, which group of parents talked less to their young children, talked less about past events, and provided less elaboration?
Welfare parents
128. Which of the following would have the LEAST positive influence on a young child’s vocabulary development?
mother’s talkativeness
129. In social situations, 4- to 5-year-olds will
use shorter sentences when speaking to a 2-year-old.
130. All of the following are precursors of literacy and academic success EXCEPT
pragmatic skill
131. In which of the following countries would the rates of dyslexia be expected to be highest?
United States
132. Knowing that letters represent sounds in language refers to
The alphabetic principal
133. Preschool children typically respond to a stimulus word with a related word interaction such as agent-action or action-object (cow-moo or drink-milk). By 7 years of age, children start responding with the same part of speech as the stimulus word (hot dog-hamburger). This is evidence that children at this age have begun to _____ their vocabulary.
Categorize
134. Metalinguistic awareness improves considerably in the elementary school years and allows children to
all of these
135. Which language approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning?
Whole-language
136. Which language approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning?
the whole-language approach.
137. Marquessa is teaching her son to read by sounding out words and having him repeat them in storybooks she reads to him. What approach is she uaing?
Phonics
138. Cecilia begins teaching children to read by having them learn to make sounds that go with each letter of the alphabet. Which language approach is Cecilia taking?
Phonics
139. Research comparing the approaches of whole-language and phonics has shown that
the phonics approach should be used in teaching children to read but students also benefit from whole-language instruction.
140. Which of the following is true of writing in the early elementary years?
All of these
141. Mrs. Nakayama’s students have above-average writing skills. Which of the following statements most likely describes this teacher’s classroom environment?
All of these
142. When Juan moved to the United States from Mexico, he and his parents spoke only Spanish. After some time, he and his parents spoke Spanish and English at home. Now they only speak English. This is an example of
Subtractive bilingualism
143. José’s basic academic subjects are taught in his native language of Spanish. English is gradually taught as a companion subject. This is an example of
the dual-language approach.
144. Which of the following is an example of the dual-language approach in a U.S. school?
Maria’s first language is Spanish. She has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes until Maria can learn more English.
145. When is the easiest time to learn a second language?
variable across different language systems
146. Researchers have found it generally takes immigrant children how long to become proficient in speaking English?
3-5 years
147. Increased sophistication in word use (metaphors, satire, dialect, etc.) is characteristic of language development during
adolescence
148. An implied comparison between two ideas that is conveyed by the abstract meaning contained in the words used to make the comparison is a
metaphor
149. The use of irony, derision, or wit to expose folly is known as
Satire
150. You see your friend and say “Sup dude?” this is an example of
Dialect
151. Which of the following is NOT a reason that adolescents tend to be better writers than younger children?
The exposure to other languages gives them a better understanding of syntax.
152. Young adolescents often speak a dialect with their peers that is characterized by
Jargon and slang
153. Language development during the adult years varies greatly among individuals depending on
Level of education and social and occupational roles.
154. _____ is the use of irony, derision, or wit to expose wickedness.
Satire
155. Sixty-five-year-old Ruth is talking on the phone. She stops speaking to search her memory for the right word to use. This is an example of
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
156. Vocabulary continues to increase until
Late adulthood
157. When does the “tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon” become readily apparent?
Late adulthood
158. All of the following is true of speech in older adults EXCEPT it is
More articulated.

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