a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis.
A contemporary of Pinel’s in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was
The first classification of mental disorders involved
recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder.
Free association and dream analysis
provide insight into the workings of the unconscious
Why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology?
It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology.
What is the most important limitation of correlational studies?
They cannot determine cause and effect.
Kraepelin is credited with
identifying different types of mental disorders.
Which of the following is NOT an example of the three phenomena that the term resilience has been used to describe?
After failing French the first time, Carl earned a passing grade when he took the course for a second time.
What do the three psychosocial viewpoints addressed in this chapter all have in common?
All emphasize the impact of early experiences.
Which parental style is characterized by warmth, control, and communication?
Which method for studying genetic influences fails to control for the possible effect of sharing a common environment?
Learning not to do something because you are punished when you do it is an example of
Suppose that the presence of a particular gene is a necessary cause for the occurrence of schizophrenia. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A person with that gene may or may not become schizophrenic.
Which of the following statements about brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorders is FALSE?
Identifiable brain damage is often the cause of psychiatric disorders.
A psychologist who studied the relationship between sociocultural factors and mental disorders would be most likely to study
poverty and racial discrimination.
A diathesis can best be described as a
Which of the following did Freud believed played a causal role in the development of most forms of psychopathology?
Often a mental illness develops shortly after some traumatic event has happened in one’s life. The event that seems to have caused the illness can be described as a
proximal causal factor.
According to cognitive theorists, a lot of information that contributes to a person’s psychopathology
is processed at a nonconscious level.
A predisposition towards developing a disorder
is called a diathesis.
A major factor associated with a child’s rejection by peers is
overly aggressive behavior.
Sammy was deprived of his mother and father’s love as a child. Operant conditioning theorists would believe his childhood would result in ________; cognitive theorists would emphasize the deprivation’s effect on ________.
a lack of social skills; dysfunctional self-schemas
While having a gene for Parkinson’s Disease guarantees that Parkinson’s Disease will develop, this is not the only factor that can lead to Parkinson’s disease. In other words, the presence of the gene is a ________, but not a ________.
sufficient cause; necessary cause.
Attractive children and unattractive babies tend to be treated differently. In other words, an infant’s physical phenotype may alter how others respond to him or her. What type of genotype-environment correlation is this an example of?
the causal pattern of a disorder.
Which of the following statements regarding divorce and psychopathology is true?
There is a positive correlation between psychopathology and divorce.
It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy.
From the cognitive-behavioral perspective, an important limitation with the behavioral perspective is the fact that
behaviorists failed to attend to the importance of mental processes.
A protective factor is
an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.
The interpersonal perspective
emphasizes social rather than inner determinants of behavior.
An child consistently identified as behaviorally inhibited is most likely to
be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in adulthood.
The loss of a parent may be
Both a diathesis and/or a stressor.
In order to develop chicken pox, one must be exposed to the virus that causes chicken pox. Note, however, that not everyone who is exposed to the virus is affected. In other words, the virus is a
One of Freud’s major contribution to current perspectives of mental disorders is
the concept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior.
Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior
results from distorted thinking and information processing.
While not all people who develop lung cancer are smokers, the likelihood of developing lung cancer is increased in those who smoke. In other words, with respect to cancer, smoking can be described as a
If having a gene for Parkinson’s Disease guarantees that Parkinson’s Disease will develop, the presence of the gene can be described as a
Tracy and Shahid are both 3 months old. Tracy is highly active, easily irritated, and cries easily. Shahid is quiet, adapts easily to change, and seems fearless. These differences illustrate
differences in temperament.
may be a source of psychological vulnerability.
If fraternal twins are more likely to be concordant for a trait than other siblings, can it be concluded that the higher concordance rate is due to the greater degree of genetic relatedness?
No, because fraternal twins are no more genetically alike than other siblings.
Ian was predisposed to being very aggressive with his peers in school, who responded by rejecting him. Later in life Ian began to associate with other aggressive youth and to participate in a variety of delinquent behaviors. This is an example of
the way the genotype may shape the phenotype.
Which of the following most accurately describes the notion of different viewpoints of abnormal behavior?
Each viewpoint offers its own explanation of abnormal behavior.
One prominent theory of the origin of depression hypothesizes that, if one becomes hopeless about his or her future, then he or she will become depressed. Thus, in this theory, hopelessness may be said to be a ________ cause of depression.
If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that
the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordance rate for dizygotic twins.
Why is it difficult to determine the nature of the relationship between divorce and the psychological functioning of family members?
Cause and effect cannot be determined as preexisting behavioral abnormalities in either the parents or the children may make divorce more likely.
A behaviorally-oriented clinician tells her alcohol dependent client: “Here is a checklist I want you to fill out each day. Whenever you feel you need a drink, you should indicate what you were thinking, where you were, who you were with, and whether you went ahead and drank.” What procedure is the clinician using?
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the benzodiazepines?
Which of the following best explains why the the Rorschach is less likely to be used today?
treatment facilities often require other types of information than the Rorschach provides
Behavior therapy is based on the belief that
abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.
Jack tells his therapist about a dream in which he struggles to drive a car that takes him in directions he does not want to go. The therapist interprets the dream to mean that Jack is trying to get control of his career future but feels he is being controlled by others. This suggests that the
manifest content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car.
Psychological assessment refers to the
procedures used to summarize a client’s problem.
Joan was surprised that, when she went to therapy, her therapist didn’t ask her questions, but just listened to her talk. She said she felt very comfortable with the therapist and felt she could say anything at all and be accepted, unlike with her critical parents. She said she could try out new ideas and the therapist was always warm and nonjudgmental. Joan was probably in
Dr. Bruce says “Its beneficial features are the ability to map ongoing psychological activities of the brain without injecting radioactive substances into the patient’s body. In addition, they are much more widely available procedures than what was used before.” What is Dr. Bruce describing?
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
While most anti-anxiety drugs act on ________, Buspar acts primarily on ________
Reasons individually administered IQ tests may not be used include all of the following EXCEPT
they have low reliability.
Abby is participating in cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat her depression. Her therapist
will help her conduct “experiments” to test a variety of hypotheses about the accuracy of her cognitions.
Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety disorders?
There are two general categories of psychological tests used in clinical practice. They are:
intelligence tests and personality tests
What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI?
Carol’s answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics.
Process-experiential therapy is a combination of
client-centered therapy and Gestalt therapy.
The Brady family is attending family therapy sessions. The therapist has told them, “If the whole family context changes, Marcia’s problem behavior will change as well.” The family therapist probably agrees with the ________ therapy approach.
What recent changes have altered the types of therapy that are available?
There is an increased need to prove that therapy is effective.
Which of the following would best address recent criticisms of the TAT?
use more modern pictures
A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that
they have a low risk of movement related side effects.
Which of the following would be the most likely candidate for ECT?
a pregnant and depressed twenty-five-year-old
Atypical antipsychotics are more commonly used today because they
may effectively treat both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Which of the following is a projective testing method that has been adapted for computer interpretation?
the Rorschach Test
Dennis has disorganized type of schizophrenia. He has lived in an institution for years. He rarely shows any attempt at socializing. A new program is started – every time Dennis speaks to another person he is given a piece of red paper. At the end of each week, he can use the red papers to get cigarettes or extra privileges. This new program is
a token economy.
One limitation of the MMPI-2 is that it
requires an individual to be literate.
What do lithium carbonate, carbamazepine (Tegretol), and valproate (Depakote) have in common?
They are all mood stabilizing drugs.
The process by which lithium reduces the likelihood of mood swings
is unknown at this time
One criticism of traditional behavioral couple therapy has been
the emphasis on change.
Which of the following would be an example of a projective technique?
A child is asked to draw her family.
A token economy is
a type of contingency management.
While neurological assessment procedures evaluate the brain’s physical properties, neuropsychological assessment focuses on
Humanistic-existential therapies are based in the belief that psychopathology is a result of
lack of fulfillment.
Disorders that begin by adolescence or early adulthood, persist for long periods of time and affect many areas of a person’s life are listed on
In Beck’s cognitive therapy, an early “homework” assignment would be
recording one’s automatic thoughts and their associated emotional reactions.
Key ideas in Gestalt therapy are
integration of mind and body, dream interpretation, and emotional impasse.
A key feature of the MMPI-2 is that
the clinical scales measure the same properties of personality organization as they always have.
Lawrence, a hypochondriac, gains a great deal of attention from his family when he complains about health problems; they tend to ignore him when he talks about other topics. A behavior therapist has instructed the family to reverse these responses: ignore the complaints and reinforce other topics. What kind of treatment does this best illustrate?
Which of the following is the most significant challenge to establishing that therapy is effective?
Many people improve without formal treatment.
Which statement about negative outcomes in psychotherapy is accurate?
A disturbing number of negative outcomes are due to sex between client and therapist.
According to the views of Carl Rogers, how should children be raised?
They should be permitted to blossom into the people they are destined to be.
Which of the following statements about reliability and validity is true?
Valid tests are usually reliable.
Traditional behavioral couples therapy
uses training in communication skills and problems solving to increase caring behaviors in couples.
Intelligence and personality tests can best be described as
indirect means of assessing psychological characteristics.
What lead to the development of family systems therapy?
the realization that the family environment played a role in whether or not relapse occurred
When asked what their orientation is, what do most of today’s psychotherapists say?
One criticism of diagnostic labels is that
they can influence both other people’s and the diagnosed person’s perception of themselves in negative ways.
The MMPI is
a structured approach to personality assessment.
A psychosocial assessment typically begins with
Psychological and physiological dependence is a well-documented danger of using
Lithium was once used
as a salt substitute.
Why is classification a necessary first step in developing an understanding about abnormal behavior?
Communication about abnormal behavior can not be effective unless what is being discussed is clear.
Animal studies have demonstrated that a single early stressful experience can result in
an enhanced response to later stressful experiences.
Despite all the criticisms of the use of life stress scales,
the finding that life change produces stress has been supported by other works
A personality disorder that puts one at risk for cardiovascular disease would be found on ________.
Research has found that there is a strong correlation between ________ and mortality following a heart attack.
Which of the following blood pressures would be classified as “high normal”?
The stress response begins in the
Cortisol can be used to
Research on the role of anger in hypertension finds that
expressed anger increases blood pressure
Which of the following will lower a soldiers risk of developing PTSD?
believing strongly in the goals of the combat
are typical when a person feels able to handle a problem.
Which of the following is NOT an effect of cortisol?
enhanced immune function
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale:
is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time.
Unlike B-cells, T-cells
are not able to recognize specific antigens by themselves.
The interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of physical disorders thought to have psychological factors as a major aspect of their causal patterns is known as
Which of the following are the antidepressants most widely prescribed today for the treatment of panic disorder?
One of the main problems with the worry in generalized anxiety disorders is
it is a form of avoidance and prevents extinction.
Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?
clinically significant distress or impairment
Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is
One factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is
behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.
Many people who are depressed
enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.
Deena has major depressive disorder. Most days she feels very sad, but when her sister came and told Deena she was going to be an Aunt, Deena felt happy for a little while. She has been gaining weight and sleeping much of the day. Deena most likely has
George, a twenty-two-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three years, he has had problems sleeping and he seems to always overeat. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?
major depressive disorder
Which of the following would eliminate a potential diagnosis of cyclothymia?
Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this.
A hypomanic episode is best described as a
mild manic episode.