PSYCH Chapter 4

According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the learner must first
pay attention.
Bandura conducted some of his research to study
possible links between children’s exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others.
The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by
the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.
If Pavlov’s dogs heard a ticking similar to that of the metronome used in his experiments,
the dogs would salivate.
After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:
spontaneous recovery.
“Little Albert” acquired a conditioned emotional response to the rat when its presentation was coupled with
a loud noise.
An unconditioned stimulus is always followed by a(n)
unconditioned response.
________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov
Research suggests that once people learn something,
it is always present somewhere in memory
Marco’s mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco’s mom uses
continuous reinforcement.
Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
a child who had previously been whining to a parent that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy
Most of the time, punishment
will only temporarily suppress a behavior
After a childhood filled with cavities, Kyle has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed
stimulus generalization.
Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of
conditioned emotional response
In order to be effective, a secondary reinforcer must be paired with a
primary reinforcer.
Operant conditioning is dependent on
voluntary behavior.
In negative reinforcement, a(n) _________ is removed; in punishment by removal, a(n) ________ is removed.
unpleasant thing; pleasant, or desirable thing
A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using
operant conditioning
The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.
imitation; motivation
_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
Pavlov
_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
Observational learning