Psych Chapter 4

behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes
identical twins(monozygotic twins)
develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twins(dizygotic twins)
develop from separate fertilized eggs, genetically no closer than ordinary brothers, but share a prenatal environment
temperament
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes, varies depending on the range of populations and environments studied

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molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies molecular structure and function of genes
molecular behavior genetics
the study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior
epigenetics
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to change
social script
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
interaction
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor(such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heretibility)
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior, they prescribe “proper” behavior
individualism
giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly
sex
the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and females
gender
the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotionally
relational aggressional
an act of aggression intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have 2 and males have 1. one from each parent produces a female child
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found in only males. when paired with a X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
testosterone
the most important male sex hormone. both males and females have it. stimulates growth of male sex organs during fetal period and development of male sex characteristics during puberty
puberty
the period of sexual maturity, when a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures(ovaries, testes, and external genetalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
spermarche
first ejaculation
menarche
the first menstrual period
disorder of sexual development
an inherited condition that involves unusual development of sex chromosomes and anatomy
role
set of expectations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females
gender identity
our sense of being male, female, or a combination of the two
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
androgyny
displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
transgender
an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
If a fraternal twin develops schizophrenia, the likelihood of the other twin developing serious mental illness is much lower than the identical twin. This suggest that
a. schizophrenia is caused by genes
b. schizophrenia is influenced by genes
c. environment is unimportant
d. identical twins are especially vulnerable to mental disorders
b.
Of the following, the best way to separate the effects of genes and environment in research is to study
a. fraternal twins
b. identical twins
c. adopted children and their adoptive parents
d. identical twins raised in different environments
d.
Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic
a. emotional reactivity and intensity
b. attitudes
c. behaviors
d. role-related traits
a.
Psychological tests reveal that anxious, inhibited infants
a. become less psychologically aroused when facing new situations
b. have slow, steady heart rates
c. have high and variable heart rates
d. have underreactive nervous systems
c.
A molecular geneticist would be most interested in
a. why most parents are so passionately devoted to their children
b. environmental influences on skin color
c. why certain diseases are more common among certain age groups
d. which genes influence extraversion
d.
Each cell of the human body has a total of
a. 23 chromosomes
b. 23 genes
c. 46 chromosomes
d. 46 genes
c.
Genes direct our physical development by synthesizing
a. hormones
b. proteins
c. DNA
d. chromosomes
b.
The genome is best defined as
a. a complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
b. a segment of DNA
c. the complete instructions for making an organism
d. the code for synthesizing protein
c.
Most human traits are
a. learned
b. determined by a single gene
c. influenced by many genes acting together
d. unpredictable
c.
several studies of long-separated identical twins have found that these twins
a. have little in common because the different environments in which they were raised
b. have many similarities, in everything from medical histories to personalities
c. have similar personalities, but very different likes, dislikes, and lifestyles
d. are no more similar than are fraternal twins reared apart
b.
Adoption studies show that the personalities of adopted children
a. closely match those of their adoptive parents
b. bear more similarities to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents
c. closely match those of the biological children of their adoptive parents
d. closely match those of other children raised in the same home, whether or not they are biologically related
b.
Chromosomes are composed of a coiled chain of
a. DNA molecules that contain genes
b. DNA molecules that contain neurotransmitters
c. DNA molecules that contain endorphins
d. DNA molecules that contain enzymes
a.
When the effect of one factor(such as environment) depends on anothers(such as heredity), we say there is a(n)___ between the two factors.
a. norm
b. positive correlation
c. negative correlation
d. interaction
d.
Through natural selection, the traits that are most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations are those that contribute to
a. temperament
b. survival
c. aggressiveness
d. social power
b.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the sexuality of men and women?
a. Men more often than women attribute a woman’s friendliness to sexual interest
b. Women are moe likely than men to cite affection as a reason for first intercourse
c. Men are more likely than women to initiate sexual activity
d. Male-female differences in sexuality are noticeably absent among gay men and lesbian women
d.
Evolutionary psychologists attribute male-female differences in sexuality to the fact that women have
a. greater reproductive potential than do men
b. lower reproductive potential than do men
c. weaker sex drives than men
d. stronger sex drives than men
b.
When evolutionary psychologists use the word fitness, they are specifically referring to
a. an animal’s ability to adapt to changing environments
b. the diversity of a species’ gene pool
c. the total number of members of the species currently alive
d. out ability to survive and reproduce
d.
Mutations are random errors in ___
a. gene
b. chromosome
c. DNA
d. protein
a.
Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among
a. males with high circulating levels of testosterone
b. males with traditional masculine attitudes
c. females with a sexual overperception bias
d. females who are lesbian
b.
Evolutionary explanations of male-female differences in sexuality have been criticized because
a. they offer “after-the-fact” explanations
b. standards of attractiveness vary with time and place
c. they underestimate cultural influences on sexuality
d. al of these reasons
d.
An evolutionary psychologist would be most interested in studying
a. why most parents are so passionately devoted to their children
b. hereditary influences on skin color
c. why certain diseases are more common among certain age groups
d. genetic differences in personality
a.
Rod has always felt pressure to be the driver when traveling in a car with Sue because he learned that this was expected of men. Rod’s feelings illustrate the influence of
a. temperament
b. gender roles
c. the selection effect
d. androgyny
b.
Four-year-old Sarah, who has very specific ideas about what it means to be female and frequently adjusts her behavior accordingly, is demonstrating the importance of ___ in the formation of gender identity.
a. gender schemas
b. norms
c. genes
d. collectivism
a.
Collectivist cultures
a. give priority to the goals of their groups
b. value the maintenance of social harmony
c. foster the social interdependence
d. are characterized by all of these values
d.
The traditions of a culture are passed from one generation to the next by means of
a. norms
b. temperaments
c. genes
d. chromosomes
a.
Which of the following most accurately expresses the extent of parental influence on personality?
a. it is more extensive than most people believe
b. it is weaker today than in the past
c. it is more limited than popular psychology supposes
d. it is almost completely unpredictable
c.
Gender refers to
a. socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
b. biologically influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
c. one’s sense of being male or female
d. the extent to which one exhibits traditionally male or female traits
a.
The fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at conception,
a. the sperm contributes an X chromosome
b. the sperm contributes a Y chromosome
c. the egg contributes an X chromosome
d. the egg contributes a Y chromosome
b.
The hormone testosterone
a. is found only in females
b. determines the sex of the developing person
c. stimulates growth of the female sex organs
d. stimulates growth of male sex organs
d.
Research studies have found that when infant rats and premature human babies are regularly touched or massaged, they
a. become attached to the person doing the massaging
b. develop faster neurologically
c. have more agreeable temperaments
d. do none of these things
b.
Of the following, parents are most likely to influence their children’s
a. ability to cooperate
b. style of interacting with peers
c. education
d. path to popularity
c.
Compared with Westerners, people in communal societies, such as Japan or China,
a. have a stronger sense of family
b. exhibit greater shyness toward strangers
c. exhibit greater concern for loyalty and social harmony
d. have all of these characteristics
d.
The selection effect in peer influence refers to the tendency of children and youth to
a. naturally separate into same-sex playgroups
b. establish large, fluid circles of friends
c. seek out friends with similar interests
d. choose friends their parents like
c.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding cultural diversity?
a. culture influences how we raise our children
b. culture influences how punctual we are
c. culture does not have a strong influence on how strictly social roles are defined
d. all cultures evolve their own norms
c.
Androgynous children tend to
a. be more resilient and self-accepting
b. be traditionally masculine or feminine
c. exhibit less flexible gender roles
d. ignore cultural norms
a.
Some children who are raised by parents who discourage traditional gender typing
a. are less likely to display gender-typed behaviors themselves
b. often become confused and develop an ambiguous gender identity
c. nevertheless organize themselves into girl worlds and boy worlds
d. display excessively masculine and feminine traits as adults
c.
Genetically male children who underwent sexual reassignment surgery and were raised as girls later
a. all described themselves as female
b. all described themselves as male
c. all had an unclear sexual identity
d. described themselves either as female or male, or had an unclear sexual identity
d.
True or False? The environment shared by a family’s children directly impacts and shapes their personalities.
False
True or False? Temperament, which is defined as a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity, is influenced by heredity, or genes.
True
True or False? as environments become more similar, heritability increases because variations due to environment would decrease.
True
True or False? Genes act as a blueprint that leads to the same result no matter what the context.
False
True or False? According to evolutionary psychologists, although genes influence humans to behave in certain ways, that influence does not preclude(prevent) choice in behavior.
True
True or False? The nurture component of development begins at the moment of birth.
False
True of False? If someone does not learn language by adolescence, he will never master any language.
True
True or False? Compared with person-to-person differences within groups, between-group differences are small.
True
True or False? Once gender roles are established in a culture, they remain the same throughout the generations.
False
True or False? People who prefer androgyny are, by definiton, transgender.
False
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