Psych. Chapter 2: Psych. as a Science

A given field of study is defined as a science by virtue of its:

A) subject matter
B)equipment
C) findings
D)scientific methods

D) scientific methods

Most psychologists today use a type of reasoning termed ________ reasoning.

A) theoretico-inductive
B) theoretico-deductive
C) hypothetico-inductive
D) hypothetico-deductive

D) hypothetico – deductive

Which approach to psychology advocated focus on observable behaviors only?

A) inductive reasoning
B) hypothetico-deductive
C) pseudopsychology
D) behaviorism

D) behaviorism

Which of the following is an example of pseudopsychology?

A) astrology
B) Gestalt
C) astronomy
D) Maharishi

A) astrology

A researcher observed the eating patterns of laboratory rats while manipulating the amount of sleep they received during a week-long study. In this example, what type of variable is “sleep”?

A) dependent
B) independent
C) extraneous
D) observable

B) independent

Which of the following is not a descriptive research method?

A) survey
B) naturalistic observation
C) experiment
D) case study

C) experiment

What method do psychologists use to analyze study data?

A) logic
B) deduction
C) induction
D) statistics

D) statistics

Which of the following statistical procedures can be used to determine to what degree participants’ scores within a group vary?

A) standard deviation
B) analysis of variance
C) mean
D) t-test

A) standard deviation

Which of the following incidents involved African American men who tested positive for syphilis purposefully not being treated so a control group of men who did not receive treatment could be formed by researchers?

A) Tuskegee
B) Lawrence
C) Oahu
D) Monroe

A) Tuskegee

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of events in a typical experimental session?

A) informed consent –> debriefing –> experiment
B) informed consent –> experiment –> debriefing
C) debriefing –> experiment –> informed consent
D) debriefing –> informed consent –> experiment

informed consent –> experiment –> debriefing

The natural law of _____ suggests that when something is set in motion, it has an effect on other things.
cause and effect

Ideas that psychologists develop about the laws that govern processes and behavior are called .
theories

The field of ______ is often credited with shifting psychology from a philosophy to a science.
biology

Forced sterilization and controlled breeding are two consequences of
eugenics

A subset of a population is known as a(n)
sample

The research methodology that asks participants to answer a series of questions is called a(n)
survey

Analyzing data through the use of _______ allows researchers to describe and measure relationships between variables.
statistics

Researchers are able to conclude more broadly from their results through the use of ______ statistics.
inferential

Before a researcher can test his/her hypotheses by collecting data, a(n) ____ must provide ethical oversight.
institutional review board

Protecting the identity and information collected from individual respondents in a research study refers to maintaining ______.
confidentiality