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Psych Ch. 3

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1.The basic functional unit of the nervous system is called a: neuron. synapse. receptor. neurotransmitter.
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neuron Neurons are nerve cells. Cells are the basic unit of function. A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that functions as a neuromessenger. This neurotransmitter then diffuses across a space, or synapse, to an adjacent postsynaptic neuron, where it attaches to receptors on the neuron’s surface.
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2. Treatment of mental illnesses with psychotropic drugs is directed at: altering brain neurochemistry. correcting brain anatomical defects. regulating social behaviors. activating the body’s normal response to stress.
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altering brain neurochemistry. Psychotropic drugs act to increase or decrease neurotransmitter substances within the brain, thus altering brain neurochemistry.
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3. Which of the following is classified as a circadian rhythm? Sex drive Sleep cycle Skeletal muscle contraction Maintenance of a focused stream of consciousness
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Sleep cycle Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that influence specific regulatory functions such as body temperature, sleeping and waking, and the secretion of certain hormones and neurotransmitters.
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4. The incoherent thought and speech patterns of the client with schizophrenia are related to the brain’s inability to: regulate conscious mental activity. retain and recall past experience. regulate social behavior. maintain homeostasis.
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regulate conscious mental activity. When the brain cannot regulate conscious mental activity, the individual’s speech patterns demonstrate incoherence and lack of reality orientation.
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5. Homeostasis is promoted by interaction between the brain and internal organs mediated by: conscious behavior. the autonomic nervous system. the sympathetic nervous system. the parasympathetic nervous system.
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the autonomic nervous system. The function of the autonomic nervous system is to transmit messages between the brain and the internal organs. This linkage promotes the maintenance of homeostasis.
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6. Cells that respond to stimuli, conduct electrical impulses, and release neurotransmitters are called: neurons. synapses. dendrites. receptors.
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neurons. Neurons are the basic functional unit of the nervous system responsible for sending and receiving messages as electrochemical events.
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7. Which imaging technique can provide information about brain function? Computed tomography (CT) scan Positron emission tomography (PET) scan Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan Skull radiograph
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Positron emission tomography (PET) scan The positron emission tomography scan provides information about function; the other imaging techniques provide information about structure.
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8. When a tumor of the cerebellum is present, the nurse should expect that the client would initially demonstrate: disequilibrium. abnormal eye movement. impaired social judgment. blood pressure irregularities.
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disequilibrium. The cerebellum is the organ primarily responsible for symptoms of equilibrium or imbalance.
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9. Which organs secrete hormones that are a normal component of the body’s general response to stress? Brain, thyroid gland, pancreas Brain, pituitary gland, adrenal glands Pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid gland Adrenal glands, parathyroid glands
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Brain, pituitary gland, adrenal glands The hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands act as a system that responds to mental and physical stress. The three hormones secreted—corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin, and cortisol—influence the function of nerve cells of the brain.
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10. The behavior of an individual who seems unable to learn right from wrong and who repeatedly violates laws and lies demonstrates problems related to the brain’s inability to: regulate conscious mental activity. retain and recall past experience. regulate social behavior. maintain homeostasis.
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regulate social behavior. The inability to regulate social behavior usually results in antisocial behaviors such as lying, cheating, taking advantage of others, and breaking laws.
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11. A client being medicated for both hallucinations and delusions reports being drowsy. The nurse will correctly interpret this symptom as related to the drug’s effect on the brain’s ability to regulate: mood. thought. memory. sleep.
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sleep. A number of psychotropic drugs have side effects that interfere with the brain’s ability to regulate sleep alertness. These side effects range from lethargy to extreme drowsiness. As the client’s body becomes accustomed to the drug, the drowsiness should dissipate.
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12. A client’s communication is marked by loose associations and word salad. Dysfunction of which portion of the brain is responsible for these symptoms? Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem Basal ganglia
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Cerebrum The ability to think and speak logically is controlled by the cerebrum.
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13. On the basis of the current understanding of neurotransmitters, the nurse can view a client’s symptoms of profound depression as likely related in part to: increased dopamine level. decreased serotonin level. increased norepinephrine level. decreased acetylcholine level.
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decreased serotonin level. A lowered serotonin level is highly supported as being related to depression; however, depression is more probably influenced by a number of neurotransmitter abnormalities.
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14. A nursing assistant shares with the nurse that a client with schizophrenia is as difficult to communicate with as “someone with Alzheimer’s.” The nurse offers the following advice: “Try talking to him early in the day to get the best results. Fatigue disorganizes his thinking.” “Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease both cause irreversible brain damage, so keep your conversations short when you talk to a client with either disorder.” “His medication targets his disturbed thought and speech patterns. To maximize improvement he will need positive interactions and support.” “Make sure he eats the comfort foods he is served because they increase serotonin production and will help normalize his thoughts and speech.”
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“His medication targets his disturbed thought and speech patterns. To maximize improvement he will need positive interactions and support.” This response will help the nursing assistant understand that improvement can be expected in the client’s condition and that this improvement can be maximized by therapeutic interactions with staff. It establishes the expectation that the nursing assistant will interact in a therapeutic manner.
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15. The nurse caring for a client taking risperidone (Risperidal) observes the client carefully for: napping during the day, a weight gain, and reports of dizziness. reports of falls, heartburn, and nausea. a rapid heartbeat, red rash, and hives. dry mouth, poor urinary output, and constipation.
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napping during the day, a weight gain, and reports of dizziness. H1 blockade has the potential to produce sedation, weight gain, and hypotension.
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16. The nurse caring for a client prescribed an antipsychotic medication that produces anticholinergic side effects will assess for: sedation, drowsiness, hypotension, and weight gain. orthostatic hypotension and memory dysfunction. blurred vision, dry mouth, and constipation. tremors, tachycardia, and ejaculatory dysfunction.
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blurred vision, dry mouth, and constipation. Anticholinergic effects are the effects produced by atropine: dry mouth, dry eyes, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention.
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17. The nurse responsible for the care of a client prescribed clonazepam (Klonopin) would evaluate treatment as being successful when the client demonstrates: less anxiety. normal appetite. improved sleep pattern. reduced auditory hallucinations.
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less anxiety. γ-Aminobutyric acid is thought to modulate neuronal excitability and anxiety. A drug that increases the effectiveness of γ-aminobutyric acid would result in anxiety reduction.
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18. The medication prescribed for a client acts by blocking reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. The nurse evaluates the treatment as successful when observing: laughing at a joke. exercising a sore shoulder. writing down his telephone number. going to his room to “calm down.”
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laughing at a joke. Depression is thought to be at least in part caused by lowered levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. Increasing the amount of these transmitters in the brain by blocking reuptake may result in mood elevation.
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19. The physician tells a client suspected of experiencing obessive-complusive disorder that “We want to do an imaging study that will tell us which parts of your brain are particularly active.” From this explanation, the nurse can determine that the physician will order a(n): computed tomography scan. positron emission tomography scan. ventriculogram. electroencephalogram.
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positron emission tomography scan. A positron emission tomography scan detects brain activity. The other imaging studies are limited to visualization of structures.
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20. A client is admitted to the hospital experiencing severe depression. The nurse recognizes the possibility that depression may be related to a stress-induced hormonal imbalance associated with: luteinizing hormone. cortisol. gronadotropin. clomipramine
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cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone released during periods of stress.