Psych Ch. 1

behavioral perspective
Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner
emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured
all human behavior is learned and can be controlled with rewards and punishments (reinforcement)

humanistic perspective
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
emphasizes the importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
Sigmund Freud
emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality
less emphasis on sexual instincts
emphasizes repressed memories, free association, dream interpretation, and transference

cognitive perspective
computer revolution – encodes, processes and stores sensory information
emphasizes thinking, perceiving, and information processing
influenced by computer revolution

biological perspective
emphasizes genetics, the role of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells

evolutionary perspective
Charles Darwin
emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes

Charles Darwin
British naturalist
theory of evolution had a significant influence on early psychology
theory of natural selection continues to influence modern evolutionary perspective

Wilhelm Wundt
German psychologist
1st psychology research lab
introspection – reported detailed descriptions of their own conscious mental experiences
studied elements of consciousness – sensation, perception, emotion

William James
Harvard professor
established psychology in US
emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences
James-Lange theory of emotion – emotion follows a 3 part sequence beginning with the perception of the stimulus which triggers physiological arousal and is interpreted as a specific emotion

G. Stanley Hall
studied under William James
established 1st psych lab in US
1st president of APA

Mary Whiton Calkins
studied under William James
denied her Ph.D at Harvard
established psych lab at Wellesley College
1st female president of APA

Margaret Flow Washburn
1st American woman to get Ph.D in psych
experiments on animal behavior

Sigmund Freud
most influential thinkers of 20th century
founded psychoanalytic school of psych
theory of personality – role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and psychological disorders
emphasized how childhood experiences affect adult personality
believed that dreams provided insight into unconscious motives

John B. Watson
emphasized study of observable behavior rather than the subjective mental process
one of the founders of behaviorism

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

any action or reaction of a living organism that can be directly observed

goals of psychology
describe particular behaviors by naming, classifying, and measuring them
explain why a behavior or mental process occurred
predict the conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur
apply psychological knowledge to promote desired goals and precent unwanted behaviors

Edward Titchner established psych lab at Cornell
used introspection to identify basic components of conscious experiences
unreliable method of investigation – different subjects reported different findings about same stimulus
introspection couldn’t be used toe tidy children, animals, mental disorders

william James
emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences
rejected introspective method of gathering info
broadened scope of psychological research to include direct observation of human and nonhuman animals

Sigmund Frued
emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality
conflict between accepted norms of behavior and unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses
freudian slips

how we construct perceptual wholes
explain perceptual organization

social-cultural perspective
focuses on how culture and social situations affect the way people think, feel, and behave

diverse specialty areas
embraces a wide range of speciality areas
clinical and counseling attract largest number of doctoral students

clinical psychology
evolution, diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders

forensic psychology
applies principles of psychology to legal profession, jury selection, and psychological profiling

educational psychology
uses how people learn to develop in structural methods and materials

industrial-organizational psychology
applies principles of psychology to workplace, including employee motivation, job satisfaction, and personnel selection

Max Wertheimer
gestalt psychologist

Ivan Pavlov
classical conditioning
Pavlov’s dogs

B. F. Skinner

psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior

biopsychological perspective
explain human thought and behavior in terms of biological processes

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