Psych Ch.1

Psychology is…
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior includes…
all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such s talking, facial expressions, and movement
Mental proceses refers to…
all the internal, hidden activity of our mind, such as thinking feeling and remembering
The 4 goals aimed at uncovering the mysteries of human and animal behavior are…
description, explanation, prediction and control
Description:
What is happening? Observing the behavior and noting everything about it, what is happening, where it happens, to whom it happens to, and under what circumstances it seems to happen.
Explanation:
Why is is happening? Build a theory on observations
Prediction:
When will it happen again?
Control:
How can it be changed?
In the definition of psychology, mental processes mean:
internal, covet processes
Dr. baker designs an experiment for studying lab rats reaction to energy drinks in relation to problem solving. Dr Baker is most interested in the goal of:
explanation
Results of the study by cherry (2009) suggests that that changes must occur to the perception of the computer science field. this illustrates the goal of:
prediction
James is conducting research that he hopes will give psychotherapists more info about how to prevent their clients from attempting suicide. In the long run he hopes a reduction in suicide behavior among those with mental illnesses will be the result. The primary goal is:
control
Psychology is how old?
130 years
Wilhelm Wundt “the father of psychology”
physiologist; human mind, objective introspection, objectivity
objective introspection
the process of objectively examining and measuring ones own thoughts and mental activities
Objectivity
observing without bias
Edward Titchener
Wundt’s student, structuralism, emotions and sensations, objective introspection could be used on physical sensations as well.
Margaret F. Washburn
First woman to receive a PH.D in psychology, Titchener’s student. “The Animal Mind”
William James
Psychology professor at Harvard. Consciousness to every day life. Functionalism. Influenced by Charles Darwins natural selection.
Functionalism
How the mind allows people to function in the real world, how people work play and adapt to their surroundings.
Mary Whiton Calkins
James student. Human memory and psychology of the self. First woman president of American Psychological Association.
Francis Cecil Sumner
First African American to receive PH.D in psychology. Father of African American psych
Gestalt psychology
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Max Wertheimer
Gestalt pysch. Cognitive psych. Leading to Gestalt therapy
Cognitive psychology
focusing not only on perception nut also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving
Sigmund freud
Neurologist, pyschoanalysis , Unconscious mind, nervous disorders repressed mind trying to resurface caused disorders. Early childhood experiences, believed that personality was formed in the first 6 years of life. Phobias caused by repressed conflict
freudian Psychoanalysis
theory and therapy based on freuds ideas
Ivan Pavlov
physiologist, worked with dogs, saliva food and metronome. Learned conditioned reflexive response
John Watson
behaviorism, seen and measured, behavior is learned, Phobias caused by conditioning- “little Albert” and rat.
Mary Cover Jones
Watson’s student. “little peter” and white rabbit. Counterconditioning, giving peter food he liked and reintroducing rabbit slowly
Which of the following earl psychologists would have been the most likely to agree with the statement “The study of the mind should focus on how it functions in every day life”
William james
Who was the first woman to complete the coursework for a doctorate at Harvard University?
Margaret Whiton Calkins
The early perspective of ________ was developed by a neurologist and emphasized the importance of both the unconscious and early childhood experiences.
psychoanalysis
Which early perspective tried to return to a focus on scientific inquiry by ignoring the study of consciousness?
behaviorism
Psychodynamic Perspective
More modern psychoanalysis. Development of self, relationships, and motivations behind behavior.
Behavioral perspective
John B Watson. Now B F Skinner. Skinner continued conditioning. Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning
behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced. Ex; child who cries and gets attention will cry again in the future
Humanistic Perspective
“third force” in psychology. people have free will and strive for self-actualization: the achievement of ones full potential. Abraham Maslow and Carl rogers.
Cognitive Perspective
how people think, remember, store and use info. Cognitive neuroscience
Sociocultural perspective
Social and culture psychology, bystander effect
Biopyschological perspective
hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors and diseases. Topics: sleep, emotions, aggression, sexual behavior and disorders. Biological factors.
Evolutionary perspective
how a couple selected each other as partners.
Psychologist
no medical training but has a doctorate degree.
Psychiatrist
medical degree, psychic specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Which of the following perspectives focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics?
evolutionary
Which perspective offers the best explanation for schizophrenia?
biopsychological
Which perspective would a researcher be taking if she were studying a clients early childhood experiences and his resulting development of self?
psychodynamic
Which of the following professionals in psychology has no medical training but has a doctorate degree?
psychologist
If Dr. Swasey is like most psychologists where does she probably work?
university/college
Scientific method
facts and not biased. 1st step: Perceiving the question 2nd: forming hypothesis 3rd: testing hypothesis 4th: Drawing conclusion 5th: Reporting results
Confirmation bias
selective perception
emperical questions
can be tested through direct observation or experience
Naturalistic observation
observing humans or animals in their normal environment.
Participant observation
the observer becomes part of study to observe
Observer bias
observer has opinion on what they expect to see
Observer effect
when the person acts different when they know they are being observed
Blind observers
people who do not know what the research is about
Lab observation
more artificial environment
Case studies
learn everything they can about a person, results in ton of detail
Phineas Gage
Case study, steel rod through head,
Surveys
representative sample. courtesy bias,
Correlation
measure of the relationship between 2 or more variables. Variable: anything that can change or vary.
Correlation coefficient
represnets 2 things; the direction of the relationship and its strength
Steps involved in designing an experiment
Selection, the variables, the groups, the importance of randomization
operational defintion
the operations that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment
Independent variable
variable that is manipulated by experimenters not the participants
Dependent variable
what the participants do, measured by what the independent was
Confounding variables
variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest
Experimental group
group exposed to the independent variable
Control group
group exposed to something else that should have no effect for the possibility of other factors
Placebo effect
participants know what the drug is for and influences behavior
Experimenter effect
expectations of the experimenter
Single blind study
participants are blind
Double blind study
participants and experimenters are blind
In the scientific method, the final step is
reporting your results
Which is an example of observer bias?
you develop an opinion of what you expect to see in an experiment
The main advantage of a survey is that
a large amount of date can be gathered
Which would indicate the weakest relationship and thus be close to complete randomness?
+0.01
In an experiment to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on completion of a puzzle, one group is allowed to sleep 8 hours while the other group is made to stay awake. The control group is
the group that gets to sleep
In a ________ study, the participants do not know if they are a part of the control group or experimental group/ Only the experimenter knows who is in each group.
single blind
What is the first guideline for doing research with people?
the rights and well being of the participants must come first
In the definition of psychology, the term behavior means
overt actions and reactions
A psychologist is interest in finding out why married couples seemingly begin to look like each other after several years of marriage. The psychologist is most interested in the goal of
explanation
Who is considered to be the father of african american psychology?
Francis Cecil Sumner
Sigmund Freud’s pyschoanalyisis focused on
early childhood experiences
Which psychologist dared to ignore the whole consciousness issue and return to a study of scientific inquiry by focusing on observable behavior?
John Watson
Which perspective is often referred to as the “third force” in psychology and focuses on observable behavior?
humanism
Which perspective best explains the bystander effect whereby individuals will be less likely to help someone in need because of the presence of others close by?
sociocultural
If dr, Byers uses an eclectic approach in her clinical treatment of children what is she doing?
she is using a combination of perspectives to treat different clients
Dr. Colton identifies himself with the largest subfield of psychology. What kind of psychologist is he?
clinical
Micah has recently been diagnosed with a psychological disorder that is best addressed initially with medication. He would likely benefit the most by first seeing a__________
psychiatrist
Which step in the scientific method is derived from the goal of description?
percieving a question
Brianne had made a prediction about the behavior the lab rats in her study will demonstrate. Next she runs the rats through a maze to see if they behave as predicted. Which step in the scientific method is this?
testing a hypothesis
The famous study of Phineas Gage is an example of
case study
A researcher finds that as her subjects increased the number of hours they spent excercising, the overall weight of her subjects decreased. This is an example of _______ correlation.
negative
A researcher wants to study the effects of texting on driving. Students in Group A drive a car in a computer game and see how many virtual accidents they have. Students in group B are asked to drive the same car but must respond to and send 3 texts. the number of accidents is measured for each group. What is the independent variable?
texting
A researcher asked an assistant to conduct a study on her behalf. She tells assistant to only share results anonymously and not include the students names along with their scores. This is a
double blind experiment
Double blind studies control for
the placebo effect and the experimenter effect
Tillie is going to volunteer to ve a participant in a research study for the first time. She has to complete paperwork. She is provided with a description of the project because all research participants must
giv informed consent before participating
Dr. Calvin needs one more participant. One person quits what option does he have?
must let person go and find another person
A famous golfer advertisis new golf bracelet. Girl decides the order it because she believe such well known person should know it it works or not. What error has she made?
authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true
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