Psych 101 exam 3

Ebbinghaus’s use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that:
the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
Chunking refers to
the organization of information into meaningful units
When spiraling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only 1/20th of a second, experimental participants:
recalled all the letters in any particular row when given a special recall signal 1/5th of a second after the display disappeared
our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly _____ units of info
What provides convincing evidence that memories are permanently and accurately stored in long term memory, as discussed in class and in the text?
a. the detailed reports of childhood experiences given by adults under hypnosis
b. the recovery of painful unconscious childhood memories when in therapy
c. Penfield’s discovery that electrical stimulation of the brain activates vivid recollections of the distant past
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
none of the above
Memory of facts is to _____ as memory of skills is to ______.
declarative memory; procedural memory
When Loftus and Palmer asked observers of a filmed car accident how fast the vehicles were going when they “smashed” into each other, the observers developed memories of the accident that:
portrayed the event as more serious than it actually had been
Professor Maslova has so many vivid memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor’s difficulty best illustrates
proactive interference
Damage to which brain structure seems to be critical in causing amnesic syndromes
The duration of memories in sensory memory is approximately
1/2 to 1 second
In the experiment by Loftus (1992) discussed in class, students wrote to their siblings asking them to describe in detail 5 events from their childhood, one of which did not actually happen. He found the siblings:
wrote detailed descriptions of the “false” event and resisted the idea that it never really happened
An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation is called:
long-term potentiation
Because she believes that boys naughtier than girls, Mrs. Hill, a second- grade teacher, watches boys more closely than girls for any of misbehavior. Mrs. Hill’s surveillance strategy best illustrates
the confirmation bias
The tendency to conclude that a person who likes poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a construction worker illustrates the use of
the representative heuristic
Fixed patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice are called
According to Maslow, our need for ____ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ___
Dr. Miles electrically stimulates the ventromedial hythalamus of a well-fed rat. This procedure is most likely to
cause the rat to stop eating
If Mary Ann is a typical female college student, it is most probable that she
*d. thinks men prefer her to weigh less than they really do.
Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that
adult males who suffer castration experience a gradual decline in their ability to perform sexually
The brain structure that detects sex hormone levels and activates sexual arousal is the
A female rat who has had its ovaries removed that receives an injection of testosterone while most likely exhibit
male sexual behavior
people who are high in achievement motivation prefer ____ tasks; people who are low in achievement motivation prefer _____ tasks
ver difficult; very easy
What type of disorder is characterized by an acquired problem in reading?
What is NOT an inherited factor in determining a person’s weight as discussed in class?
activity level of the lateral hypothalamus
Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders
According to Freud, children develop unconscious sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex during the ____ stage
Freud: a person who is optimistic, gullible and cocky is ___ in the _____ stage.
fixated; oral
Defense mechanism that the ego unconsciously makes desires appear to be their opposite is called
reaction formation
Jung emphasized the importance of ____ in personality functioning
the collective unconscious
One of the “Big Five” trait dimensions is
Stimulation of the alter hypothalamus most likely leads to
a decrease in eating
The two neurotransmitters the play the most important roles in the brain’s reward system are
endorphin and dopamine
The two brain structures that are most directly part of the brain’s reward system are
the nucleus accumbens and the ventral segmental area
Hormones that make you hungry
Researchers asked university students to recall childhood events, including a false event such as breaking a window with their hand
its easy to lead people to construct false memories
After studying biology all afternoon, Ralph is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material he memorized in the morning. this illustrates
retroactive inference
Patient H.M had brain surgery to alleviate the effects of epilepsy
could learn new procedural memories but not new episodic memories
The term chunking is most applicable with
short term memory
levels of processing manipulations most likely affects
by shrinking the hippocampus, prolonged stress is most likely to inhibit the process of
long term memory formation
The fact that most people can not remember the details of a lincoln penny is best explained as
The__ plays an important role in the formation of episodic memories, whereas the ___ plays an important role in the formation of procedural memories
hippocampus; thalamus
The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as
long term potentiation
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called a
iconic memory
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after the decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This highlighted the
semantic encoding
As taylor leaves the house to go shopping, her boyfriend yells at her giving her a list of ten items he wants her to pick up at the grocery store. She is most likely to forget
items in the middle of the list
Students who restudy course material at the end of a semester illustrate
the spacing effect
Three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are
larm, reisistance, exhaustion
In response to stress, norepinephire (adreline) is released by the ____ and then gluccorticoid stress hormones are released by the
amygdala, adrenal gland
structure responsible for immediate response to a threat and to the cognitive evaluation of the threat are the
amygdala and preforontal cortex
Neurotramsmitter implicated in drug addiction
resting rate of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate