What does the science of human development seek to understand?
how and why people change over time
The first step in the scientific method involves
posing a question
Empirical evidence is based on
observation, experience, or experiment
The science of develpoment focuses on
all of this information
Developmentalists who carefully observe the behavior of schoolchildren during recess are using a research method known as
scientific observation
A hypothesis is a
prediction that can be tested
In the science of human development, “nurture” refers to
environmental influences
Most developmental psychologist believe that development is the result of
nature and nurture acting together
The lifespan perspective takes into account development from
conception to death
The ecological-systems approach was proposed by
Which developmentatlist was the first to describe the interaction between culture and education?
Which developmentalist theory emphasized the influence of unconscious drives and motives on behavior?

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American psychologist who explained complex human behaviors in terms of operant conditioning was
Psychoanalytic theory originated with
Behaviorists believe that psychologists should focus on
observable behaviors
Any consequence that follows a behavior and makes the person likely to repeat the behavior is called
Social learning theory indicates that learning comes from
observing and imitating others
Who would be the most likely to agree with the statement “Anything can be learned”?
2 to 6 years old
preoperational stage
The so-called “new” theories, draws on theology, political science, and history
According to Abraham Maslow, all people
have the same basic needs or motivations
The theories that have brough an understanding of intellectual processes and how our thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development are __________ theories
When a sperm and ovum merge, a one-called________ is formed
The name of the full set of genes that provides the instruction for making living organisms is the
Genes are segments of molecules of
Justin and Jacob are identical twins. They are the result of
one ovum fertilized by one sperm that split into two zygotes
In vitro fertilization is technique
in which sperm are mixed with ova that have been surgically removed from a woman ovary
Monozygotic twins have ______ of their genes in common
100 perecent
The ______ is the person appearance, behavior, and brain and body functions
Almost every trait is _________ which means it is affected by many genes
Epigenetic’s means that a trait
is determined by genes and the environment
Knowing that nature and nurture affect every human trait and disorder means all of the following EXCEPT
nurture can always override the potential influence of nature
An individual with an extra chromosome on the 21st pair of chromosomes has
down syndrome
germ, embro, and fetal
The third through the eighth week after conception is called the
embryonic period
An important nutrient that many women do not get in adequate amounts from the typical diet is
folic acid
The third period of gestation is the _______ period
Among the characteristics of babies born with fetal alcohol syndrome are
slowed physical growth and behavior problems
The birth process begins
when the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out
When healthy babies are born, they usually _______
breathe and cry on their own immediately
A teratogen is any agent or condition that increases the risk for
prenatal abnormalities
When there is a strong parental alliance
all of the above
A baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected given the time since conception is referred to as:
small for gestation age
Julia had a baby there weeks ago
postpartum depression
A basic nerve cell in the central nervous system is called
Compared with growth during the first year, growth during the second year
proceeds at a slower rate
The last part of the brain to mature is the
prefrontal cortex
The human body is equipped to protect the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth. This protective feature is known as
Which of the following is true of motor-skill development in healthy infants
all of these statements are true
Brain functions that depend on babies having things to see and hear, and people to feed and carry them, are called
Pruning is the process by which
unused connection between neurons are eliminated
Synapses are
intersections between the axon
A life-threatening condition that occurs when infants are shaken back and forth sharply and quickly is called
shaken baby syndrome
Gross motor skills are
large movements
Why are breast-fed babies less likely to contact infectious diseases than bottle-fed babies?
breast milk contains antibodies
Based on research about SIDS, caregivers are advised that babies should be
put to sleep on their backs
Piaget called an infants first period of cognitive development
sensorimotor intelligence
During the sensorimotor stage, the child’s main task is to
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
Sensorimotor intelligence begins with a babys first
When an infant begins to understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight, she or he has begun to understand the concept of object
For Chomsky, the language acquisition device (LAD) refers to
the human predisposition to acquire language
According to Skinner, children acquire language
through reinforcement and other aspects of conditioning
Research on infant long-term memory has shown that infants can remember if the researchers
use special measure to aid memory retrieval, such as reminders
6 and 12 months
implicit, explicit
Newborns prefer
their mothers language more than any other language
_________ believed that children learn language by receiving adequate parental attention
The distinct language form known as ” baby-talk” is a
simplified language that adults use when talking to babies
Newborns have two identifiable emotions
pleasure and pain
An infants fear of being left by the mother or other caregiver
separation anxiety, 9 to 14 months
An infants distress at seeing an unfamiliar person is called
stranger wariness
Which characteristics must be present before an infant can experience pride, shame, or guilt
social awareness
The more physical play of fathers has been described as
proximal parenting
Freud;s oral stage corresponds to Erikson’s crisis of
trust versus mistrust
Adam is playful
hard to classify
Infant-caregiver interaction that are marked by inconsistency are usually classified as
The attachment pattern marked by anxiety and uncertainty is
insecure- resistant/ambivalent
Like Freud, Erikson believed that:
a problem arising in early infancy last a lifetime
Attachment in infants is definitely evident by the age of
1 year
Which scenario portrays a secure attachment
a child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver
Which child shows a secure attachment
one who makes contact with the caregiver after the caregiver re-enters the room
When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to
engage in physical play
Freud’s stage that takes place in the second year is called
the anal stage
During early childhood, the most common disease of young children in developed nations is
tooth decay
Skills that involve large body movements, such as running and jumping, are called
gross motor skills
Which of the following is TRUE of the corpus callosum
it connects the two halves of the bran
The leading cause of death in childhood is
A childs passion for continuity and sameness is normal at about ___years of age
The center for appreciation of music, art, and poetry is usually located in the brains
right hemisphere
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill
drawing with a pencil
Which of these acts would be considered child maltreatment
a caregiver leaving a child alone while going the store
Nicole suffered a stroke
How do abused children come to view other people
as hostile and ready to take advantage of them
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