Psyc Ch. 1 and 2

William Wundt
Birth of psychology. Started first laboratory in the world. Prior to 1879 physiologists an philosophers were studying questions about the mind

G. Stanley Hall
Created first laboratory in the US. Started and first president of American Psychological Association

Edward Tichner
Started the structuralism school of thought. Conscious and broke it into different elements. Used introspection.

William James
Functionalism. Investigated the purpose or function of conscious

Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic school of thought. Behavior is affected by the unconscious. Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior. Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plats a central role in behavior.

John Watson
US. Idea that scientific psychology should only study observable behavior.

B.F. Skinner
Environmental factors determine behavior. Responses that lead to positive reactions are repeated. More controversy regarding free will.

Carl Rogers + Abraham Maslow
Optimistic, Emphasis on the unique qualities of humans: freedom and personal growth.

Jean Piaget
Study of memory, thinking, mental processes, and how we acquire knowledge.

Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes, Science of verifiable objective procedures

After psych became a separate science, two schools of thought were.
Structuralism and functionalism

Introspection
Careful, systematic self observation of ones own conscience experience

Cognitive
Study of memory, thinking, mental processes, and how we acquire knowledge.

Evolutionary Psychology
Investigates how species have evolved and how certain behaviors aid in the survival of the species. Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success.

Social Psychology
Focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior

Clinical
Concerned with evaluation diagnose and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders

Goals of Psychological Research (three)
-Description of social behavior
-Establish a relationship between cause and effect
-Develop theories about why people behave the way that they do
-Application

Empirical
Knowledge based on direct observation

Empirical Research
Studies based on direct observation. Gives set of ideas which try to explain what we observe. Goal is to find support or disprove

Scientific Research
Scientific approach assumes that events are governed by some lawful order.

Steps in Creating a Scientific Investigation
Hypothesis, Method + Design, Collect Data, Analysis + Conclusion, Share results

Hypothesis
Tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables

Variable can be any _________, ___________, ___________, or _________. Two types are
Event, Characteristic Condition, Behavior. Independent and Dependent

Method + Design
Choosing a method is dependent on the questions being asked by the experimenter and the relationship between variables in the hypothesis

Experimental Research
Manipulates a variable, Carefully controlled conditions, Observes whether any changes occur in a 2nd variable

Variables
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study. Independent, Dependent, and Confounding.

Independent Variable
A condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.

Dependent Variable
The variables that are thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable.

Experimental Group
The group of participants that receive a special treatment in regard to the independent variable

Control Group
The group that receives no special treatment in regard to the independent variable

Advantages of Experimental Research
Able to draw cause and effect conclusions about variables. Direct manipulations over Independent variables.

Disadvantages of Experimental Research
Artificial setting, the experimental method cannot be applied to every research question, Social Desirability Bias (participants behave in a socially acceptable way) , Experimental Bias (researchers expect a certain outcome. May affect how participants act). Placebo effect

Placebo Effect
Participants expectations lead them to experience some changes even though they receive empty, fake, or inefficient treatment.

Double Blinded Experiments
Solves issue of experimental research disadvantages. Both researcher and participants are blinded to the experiment.

Descriptive/ Correlation Research
Can only describe patterns of behavior and discover associations between variables

Goal of Correlation Research
To examine whether two or more variables are related to each other

Types of Correlation Research
Naturalistic observations, case studies, surveys

Naturalistic observation
Watching the subjects carefully without ever coming into contact or interviewing with them

Case studies
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject

Surveys
Use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ background and behavior

Correlation Coefficient
A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables. Range +1.00 to -1.00 showing the strength of the relationship. Shows no relationship. The symbol (+/-) shows the direction of the relationship.

Disadvantages of Correlation Design
Correlation does not imply causation. Can’t conclude whether X affects Y or Y affects X. Self report is often unreliable. Social desirability bias, memory lapses, wishful thinking