PSYC 3313 – Human Growth and Development – Chapter 16-19 – Final Exam

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The divorce rate for second marriages is _____ for first marriages.

a. slightly higher than
b. about the same as
c. much lower than
d. slightly lower than

a
Of women who were murdered during a 10-year period, how many of them were murdered by their husband, boyfriend, or other partner?

a. More than half
b. One-fourth
c. One-third
d. One in ten

a
The stages of violence are comprised of all but which of the following?

a. Acute battering stage
b. Loving contrition stage
c. Stagnation stage
d. Tension-building stage

c
Middle-aged adults who find themselves caring for both their children and their aging parents are called the ________ generation.

a. transitional
b. nurturing
c. sandwich
d. changeover

c
Forty-five-year-old Andrew would hate to admit it, but his marriage is characterized by continuing, severe violence. How many U.S. marriages fit this description with regard to domestic violence?

a. 40%
b. 15%
c. 5%
d. 25%

b
Alyssa is 22 and Amber is 40. Each of these women had her first child a year ago. According to _______, they are likely to share certain commonalities of personality development related to being new mothers despite the difference in their ages.

a. Erikson’s psychosocial theory
b. Roger Gould’s model of adult development
c. Daniel Levinson’s seasons of life theory
d. Ravenna Helson’s personality development theory

d
Which of the following is an inaccurate statement regarding immigrants in the United States?

a. Few immigrants come to the United States to get on welfare.
b. Most legal and illegal immigrants ultimately experience financial success.
c. Nonrefugee immigrants who are old enough to work are more likely to be on welfare than native-born U.S. citizens.
d. Over time, immigrants contribute more to the U.S. economy than they take away.

c
Some forecasters suggest that, because of technological advances, career changes _____

a. will increase mainly with young adults just entering the workforce.
b. will become more common for women than for men.
c. may become the rule rather than the exception.
d. will become much less common than they have been in the past.

c
Beth, Mary Lou, and Liz are all in their late 40s. If they are like most people their age, how would they say they regard midlife?

a. As a physically and emotionally demanding time
b. As a particularly rewarding time
c. As a necessary evil
d. As a stressful time that they can’t wait to get beyond

b
Being part of the sandwich generation is a relatively new phenomenon, produced by several converging trends, including the fact that _____

a. the Medicare system provides incentives for elderly people to live with their adult children and receive home visits from health care providers.
b. women are marrying earlier and having children at a younger age.
c. men are marrying earlier and having children at a younger age.
d. people are living longer, meaning that more middle-aged people have parents still living.

d
According to census data, multigenerational households represent about _______ of all households.

a. 14%
b. 1.4%
c. 4%
d. 40%

c
In what year were both the number of immigrants in the U.S. and the percentage of immigrants in the U.S. population at their lowest point of the past 100 years?

a. 1980
b. 1920
c. 1940
d. 1970

d
Some form of violence happens in _____ of all marriages.

a. 15%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 5%

b
Kevin is 45 years old and has recently become more focused on making a contribution to family, community, work, and society as a whole. Erikson would say that Kevin is exhibiting _____

a. generativity.
b. the normative stagnation crisis.
c. the transformative period.
d. midlife crisis.

a
Compared to what it was in 2008, the percentage of women aged 75 and older in the labor force is expected to _______ by 2018.

a. increase significantly
b. decrease significantly
c. remain unchanged
d. increase slightly

b
Which of the “Big Five” personality traits describes a person’s level of curiosity and interest in new experiences?

a. Conscientiousness
b. Openness
c. Extroversion
d. Agreeableness

b
How many people who divorce end up marrying again, usually within 2 to 5 years?

a. 80-90%
b. 75-80%
c. 10-20%
d. 30-50%

b
Fifty-year-old Rachel had always been a fairly unhappy person, prone to depression and negativity. Then she won half a million dollars in a lottery. What would researchers predict about Rachel’s level of happiness three years after she received this money?

a. Rachel is likely to be somewhat happier than ever before in her life.
b. Rachel is likely to be substantially more unhappy than she was before winning the money.
c. Rachel is likely to be a whole new person: very happy, exuberant, and optimistic.
d. Rachel is likely to be about as unhappy as she always was before winning the money.

d
In a given year, how many men and women say they have had sex outside their marriage?

a. 2% of men; 0.5% of women
b. 20% of men; 15% of women
c. 17% of men; 11% of women
d. 12% of men; 7% of women

d
The stage in the cycle of violence when physical abuse actually occurs is the _______ stage.

a. aggression resolution
b. escalation
c. catharsis resolution
d. acute battering

d
In the 20 years she has been married to Michael, Carrie has endured many episodes of violence; Michael has slapped her, punched her, kicked her, and forced her into sexual acts against her will. If Michael becomes extremely remorseful after such an episode and begs for forgiveness, what is the likely outcome regarding the likelihood of future violence?

a. Michael is likely to refrain from violence if Carrie threatens to report his behavior to the police.
b. Michael is likely to refrain from violence if Carrie agrees to forgive him.
c. Michael is likely to continue having violent outbursts no matter what Carrie does.
d. Michael is likely to refrain from violence as long as Carrie refuses to forgive him.

c
Census data reveal that the ________ household is the fastest-growing household arrangement.

a. multigenerational
b. single-parent
c. cohabiting
d. single-person

a
U.S. residents born outside the country now represent close to ________ of the population.

a. 5%
b. 21%
c. 29%
d. 13%

d
In a research study that asked the question “What age do you feel most of the time?,” which of the following answered with the greatest discrepancy between their real age and the age they felt?

a. Men ages 35 to 44
b. Women ages 25 to 34
c. Men ages 45 to 54
d. Women ages 55 to 64

d
Marital aggression by a husband typically occurs in three stages. The first stage is _____

a. physical aggression.
b. loss of trust.
c. acute battering.
d. tension building.

d
Which disease is a primary cause of broken bones among the elderly, especially women?

a. Multiple sclerosis
b. Osteoporosis
c. AMD
d. Arthritis

b
Of the following systems of the body, which one shows the LEAST decline from age 20 to 80?

a. Maximal cardiac output
b. Basal metabolic rate
c. Bone mineral mass
d. Muscle strength

b
_______ manifests in beliefs that older adults are not as competent or attractive as young adults, and similar behaviors by young people and old people are often unfavorably interpreted against the elderly.

a. The generation gap
b. Stereotyping
c. Ageism
d. The cohort effect

c
Which of the following best describes the relationship between dementia and Alzheimer’s disease?

a. Dementia is a broad category of serious memory loss that encompasses a number of diseases, Alzheimer’s being one of them.
b. Alzheimer’s disease is a broad category of serious memory loss that encompasses a number of diseases, dementia being one of them.
c. Alzheimer’s disease is the full-blown, end stage of dementia in which the person does not recognize family members and cannot care for him- or herself.
d. Dementia is the full-blown, end stage of Alzheimer’s disease in which the person does not recognize family members and cannot care for him- or herself.

a
As people age, they experience significant cardiovascular decline. However, _______ causes cardiovascular decline at any age.

a. eating a diet high in fiber
b. weightlifting and other weight-bearing exercise
c. smoking
d. drinking alcohol, especially red wine

c
Cross-cultural research has shown that in societies where older people are held in relatively high esteem, such as China, memory loss among older people is _______ compared to societies where older people are not as highly esteemed.

a. neither more common nor less common
b. more common
c. less common
d. virtually unknown

c
_________, or primary aging, encompasses all the inevitable physical changes we as humans experience in the aging process that are due to genetic programming.

a. Dementia
b. Ageism
c. Senility
d. Senescence

d
_______ is a broad category of serious memory loss accompanied by declines in other mental functioning; it encompasses a number of diseases.

a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. Multiple sclerosis
c. Parkinson’s disease
d. Dementia

d
For a child born in the United States, there is around a _______ difference in life expectancy based on whether that child is white or African American.

a. 3-year
b. 5-year
c. 2-year
d. statistically imperceptible

b
Women are more susceptible than men to osteoporosis largely because of a decrease in the production of _____

a. free radicals.
b. estrogen.
c. testosterone.
d. progesterone.

b
Researchers working with nematodes have been able to extend their lives from 9 days to 50 days – the equivalent of having a human live to the age of 420 years. What are nematodes?

a. Microscopic, transparent worms
b. A species of jellyfish
c. A species of fruit fly
d. Amphibians similar to frogs and salamanders

a
Hypertension is another term for _____

a. high blood pressure.
b. a buildup of pressure in the fluid inside the eye.
c. an inflammation of one or more joints.
d. the way people react to uncontrollable stress.

a
The gender gap is wide for people over age 85: For every male in that age group, there are _______ women.

a. 1.92
b. 1.29
c. 2.57
d. 3.63

c
Studies in the plasticity of cognitive skills have shown that cognitive training in older adults tends to _____

a. increase intellectual functioning even years later.
b. increase intellectual functioning in the short term, but not after the training ends.
c. interfere with intellectual functioning.
d. make little difference in cognitive performance on standardized tests.

a
In addition to good physical and mental health, what other factor plays an important role in determining whether an elderly person will engage in sexual activity?

a. Living arrangements
b. Previous regular sexual activity
c. Inhibition levels
d. Testosterone levels

b
__________ memories are those that relate to specific life experiences.

a. Implicit
b. Semantic
c. Explicit
d. Episodic

d
Dr. Nakamura is a specialist who studies aging; he is a _____

a. geriatric psychiatrist.
b. gestationist.
c. gerontologist.
d. genealogist.

c
A decline in ________ intelligence may be partially responsible for the reduced likelihood of older adults using newer technology.

a. crystalized
b. compartmental
c. experiential
d. fluid

d
Doctors know that the protein that normally helps the production and growth of neurons goes awry in Alzheimer’s patients. When this occurs, it causes nerve cells to _____

a. detach from one another.
b. attach to new synapses.
c. deteriorate.
d. become myelinated.

c
Margaret is 86 years old. Based on demographic categories of late adulthood, Margaret would be classified as ______ old.

a. young
b. oldest
c. old
d. youngest

b
Scientists have identified several changes in the brain, including an increased production of beta amyloid precursor protein, a decrease in brain size, and the death of certain neurons, that cause the symptoms of ________. However, they are unsure of what triggers the problem in the first place.

a. Macular degeneration
b. Adult-onset diabetes
c. Alzheimer’s disease
d. Glaucoma

c
What is the cure for Alzheimer’s disease?

a. Patients endure chemotherapy and radiation to kill off the offending cells.
b. A patient takes medication to relieve symptoms. Once this is achieved, the patient undergoes brain surgery to repair the diseased brain tissue.
c. There is no known cure at the present time.
d. Patients undergo drug therapy until nerves are rebuilt.

c
__________ aging is the type of aging that takes into account changes that are due to illness and health habits.

a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Initial
d. Progressive

b
According to a 2009 study, about what percent of people ages 75 to 84 use the Internet?

a. 40%
b. 14%
c. 8%
d. 22%

d
Which approach to the study of aging suggests that if we can find a way to eliminate the toxins produced by the body and by environmental exposure, aging might well be slowed?

a. Generalized slowing hypothesis
b. Wear-and-tear theories
c. Genetic programming theories
d. Peripheral slowing hypothesis

b
The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of an older individual is called _____

a. tertiary aging
b. elder abuse
c. senescence
d. ageism

b
Harold finds it harder and harder to hear conversations, especially when in public places like restaurants. He decides to get fitted for hearing aids to solve the problem. Harold is using _________ to make up for losses due to aging.

a. activity
b. compensation
c. selective optimization
d. continuity

b
Which of the following individuals is most likely to be a victim of elder abuse?

a. A husband who is being cared for by his wife.
b. A nursing home resident.
c. An ill parent who is being cared for by his child.
d. A wife who is being cared for by her husband.

c
If you were to analyze the living situation of most older adults, which of the following circumstances would you be most likely to find?

a. Most are living with a spouse
b. Most are living in a care facility
c. Most are living alone
d. Most are living with a child

a
Approximately how many people in late adulthood live in some form of an institutional setting or specialized environment?

a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 15%
d. 5%

a
How does the rate of poverty among people age 65 and older compare to the rate among people younger than 65?

a. It is about the same.
b. It is significantly lower.
c. It is significantly higher for men, but about the same for women.
d. It is significantly higher.

a
Which of the following statements about disengagement theory is accurate?

a. Older adults disengage physically because of their lower energy level, but they remain fully engaged on the psychological and social levels.
b. No degree of disengagement is positive for older adults.
c. If older adults choose to disengage, it is their own fault, as society provides plentiful opportunities for them to be meaningfully engaged.
d. Most gerontologists reject disengagement theory.

d
Which of the following theorists examined personality in the ego-integrity-versus-despair stage of psychosocial development?

a. Robert Peck
b. Erik Erikson
c. Daniel Levinson
d. Bernice Neugarten

b
Continuing-care communities tend to be fairly homogeneous in terms of the religious, racial, and ethnic backgrounds of their residents. In this context, what does homogenous mean?

a. The residents are dissimilar or diverse in their religious, racial, or ethnic backgrounds.
b. Each individual resident comes from a background that is religiously ambiguous, interracial, or ethnically mixed.
c. The continuing-care community achieves diversity through a policy of admitting only a certain percentage of people from each religion, race, and ethnicity.
d. The residents are similar or uniform in their religious, racial, or ethnic backgrounds.

d
According to Robert Butler, we are most likely to engage in a life review when we _____

a. complete a large project or accomplish a much-anticipated goal.
b. seek to avoid recognizing or admitting our mistakes.
c. need to relive a previous life experience in order to avoid dealing with new problems.
d. become reminded of our impending death.

d
Older adults often find that, over the years, their income does not keep pace with the cost of living. What is the increase in the cost of living called?

a. Inflation
b. Deflation
c. The trickle-down effect
d. Supply-side expansion

a
In the developmental stages proposed by Peck, transcendence refers to _____

a. spiritual wisdom.
b. the correlation between mind and body.
c. having order in one’s life.
d. coping with and moving beyond physical changes.

d
According to Robert Butler, what triggers a life review?

a. The birth of one’s first great-grandchild
b. The decision to retire
c. The decision to move into a continuing-care community
d. The increasingly obvious prospect of one’s death

d
Which of the following is true regarding how elderly people are viewed around the world?

a. Compared to industrialized societies, elders are regarded more highly in agricultural societies, where they have accumulated resources such as land and animals.
b. Elders are treated with respect and perceived as having great wisdom in all societies equally around the world.
c. Compared to agricultural societies, elders are regarded more highly in industrialized societies, where they are quick to adapt to changes in technology and possess key knowledge and skills.
d. In any society, the perception of elderly individuals as possessing wisdom is generally based on the type of employment they had before retirement.

a
Bernice Neugarten examined which of the following?

a. The various ways in which people cope with aging
b. How emotions affect the aging process
c. Social deterrents to the aging process
d. Cognitive processes in aging

a
Gracie used to volunteer at the public library 20 hours a week; she also spent a lot of time watching her grandchildren and playing cribbage with friends. As she got into her late 80s, she cut back on her volunteer work and got together less often with her friends and grandchildren. Gracie’s gradual withdrawal from activities and societies is consistent with _____

a. disengagement theory.
b. selective optimization.
c. activity theory.
d. age stratification theory.

a
Carol is 70 years old. When she looks back on her life, she has few regrets. She feels that she has realized and fulfilled the possibilities that came her way. Erikson would say that Carol _____

a. has achieved ego integrity
b. is egotistical.
c. is ego preoccupied.
d. has fallen into despair.

a
Which characteristic is associated with increased likelihood of becoming a victim of elder abuse?

a. Being less isolated
b. Attending an adult day-care facility
c. Being an Alzheimer’s patient
d. Having a caregiver who lives outside of the home

c
Maria’s care needs have increased since she had a severe stroke; her condition is complicated by diabetes and a moderate degree of dementia. Together with her family, she agrees to move into a facility where she receives full-time care. Maria is living in a(n) _____

a. assisted-living facility.
b. adult day-care facility.
c. continuing-care community.
d. skilled-nursing facility.

d
In a number of African cultures, those who reach old age are _____

a. removed from the tribe and left to die.
b. removed from the tribe but live contently with other elders in rustic huts that serve as nursing care facilities.
c. called “big person” and their advanced age is viewed as a sign of divine intervention.
d. expected to be cared for by their sons and daughters-in-law; as a result, parents who have only daughters are often left with no one to care for them.

c
During which stage of retirement do retirees engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were previously hindered by working full-time?

a. Retirement routine
b. Reorientation
c. Disenchantment
d. Honeymoon

d
Seventy-eight-year-old Jorge has lived in a nursing home for the past year. He has a very difficult time accepting that he is getting older and, as a result, experiences deep despair. According to Bernice Neugarten, what is Jorge’s personality type?

a. Integrated
b. Passive-dependent
c. Disintegrated and disorganized
d. Defended

c
In the ________ stage of retirement, a retiree feels that retirement is not all what they thought it would be. They may miss the stimulation of a job or may find it difficult to keep busy

a. termination
b. disenchantment
c. honeymoon
d. reorientation

b
Nancy has been skilled in creating all kinds of needlework for family and friends since she was a teenager. Now that she is 75 and her visual acuity has declined, she no longer embroiders, but instead focuses on knitting; she also avoids working on dark colors because dark yarn is difficult to see. She knits beautiful sweaters and other garments and has started a successful business selling them. Nancy’s transition is an example of _____

a. selective optimization with compensation.
b. ego transcendence.
c. continuity.
d. psychological disengagement.

a
Charles is in his mid-60s. As he reflects on his life, he experiences a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Erikson refers to this as _____

a. feeling civility.
b. a self-appraisal.
c. achieving integrity.
d. earning self-esteem.

c
Anne had undergone 3 years of cancer treatment, but her cancer had nevertheless progressed so that she could no longer be cared for at home, and her doctors anticipated she would not live more than a few more months. Anne and her family agreed she would be admitted to a facility dedicated to making patients’ last days as comfortable, pleasant, and meaningful as possible. Such a facility best fits the description of a _____

a. hospital.
b. hospice.
c. skilled-nursing facility.
d. nursing home.

b
Arthur’s wife has been diagnosed with a terminal illness. Arthur prays for her recovery, though he knows it would be a miracle. He promises God that he will quit smoking for good if his wife can be cured. Arthur is in which stage of Kübler-Ross’s model?

a. Denial
b. Anger
c. Depression
d. Bargaining

d
Categorize the most accurate statement regarding people’s willingness to deal with the reality that illnesses that are likely to cause death have occurred.

a. Physicians generally prefer to avoid telling dying patients that their illnesses are terminal.
b. Most adolescents do not wish to know the true nature of their ailments or details about their illnesses.
c. Most people in late adulthood do not wish to know or understand the true nature of their ailments and the details of their illnesses.
d. People who are generally more anxious about life have been found to be significantly less anxious about death.

a
According to the World Fact Book (2012), the United States ranks behind _____ other countries regarding infant mortality rates for the first year of life.

a. 35
b. 48
c. 20
d. 75

b
In a study by Knaus and colleagues, 31% of terminally ill patients did not want resuscitation. Of those, how many patients’ physicians were aware of the patient’s preference?

a. 31%
b. 55%
c. 47%
d. 74%

c
Which of the following is NOT one of the most frequent causes of death among adolescents?

a. Accidents
b. Homicide
c. Diabetes
d. Suicide

c
One kind of death that is particularly difficult to cope with is _______, the death of an unborn child.

a. fetal decline
b. miscarriage
c. sudden infant death syndrome
d. fetal distress

b
Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the controversies over euthanasia, assisted suicide, and the right to die?

a. In the first year after Oregon’s “right to die” law was passed, over 5,000 people opted to die by assisted suicide.
b. A survey of nurses in intensive care units found that the majority had deliberately hastened at least one patient’s death within the past year.
c. In the Netherlands, where assisted suicide is legal, a person is free to choose to have medical personnel end his or her life without any conditions being met.
d. Dr. Jack Kevorkian spent 8 years in prison after being convicted of second-degree murder for participating in an assisted suicide.

d
Courtney works as a lifeguard during the summer season. Last year, she pulled a child from the water who was in a state of functional death. This means that _____

a. all signs of brain activity had ceased.
b. the child was not breathing and had no heartbeat.
c. all signs of brain activity had ceased, but there was a reasonable likelihood of electrical brain waves resurging.
d. the child had no blood pressure.

b
The suicide rate for men in late adulthood _____

a. is significantly lower than for women of the same age.
b. declines slightly compared with men in middle adulthood.
c. significantly declines.
d. climbs steadily, especially for men over the age of 85.

d
For most localities in the U.S., the legal definition of death is _____

a. the absence of both heart rate and breathing.
b. highly controversial and varies from one doctor to another.
c. the absence of heart rate.
d. the absence of brain functioning.

d
The number of children’s deaths from ________ has nearly tripled since 1960.

a. homicide
b. fires
c. drowning
d. motor-vehicle accidents

a
Which of the following legal documents may authorize a health-care proxy?

a. DNR order
b. Letters testamentary
c. Durable power of attorney
d. Living trust

c
The average cost of a funeral and burial in the United States is _____

a. $ 3,000.
b. $ 7,000.
c. $ 5,000.
d. $ 20,000.

b
One example of a funeral rite is the suttee, a traditional Hindu practice now illegal in India, in which _____

a. servants are buried alive with their masters’ bodies.
b. a grieving spouse completes rituals of extreme fasting and self-mutilation.
c. a widow is expected to throw herself onto her husband’s funeral pyre.
d. children from lower castes are used for human sacrifices.

c
Which individual had the greatest influence in our understanding of the way people confront death?

a. Kübler-Ross
b. Kinsey
c. Erikson
d. Corr

a
A living will provides the option to decline various forms of treatment that would prolong dying. Which of the following is NOT one of the treatments named on a typical living will document?

a. Cardiac resuscitation
b. Mechanical respiration
c. Surgery to remove cancer
d. Tube feeding

c
According to Kübler-Ross, what is the second of the five stages people pass through as they move toward death?

a. Denial
b. Depression
c. Bargaining
d. Anger

d
Lance was riding a motorcycle on an interstate highway when he was injured in a serious accident. At the hospital, the doctor informed his wife of his condition, stating, “He is still breathing with intervention, but he has no brain activity.” This condition is known as ________ death.

a. mental
b. physical
c. functional
d. brain

d
The third and final stage of grief after the death of a loved one is characterized by _____

a. suffering deep unhappiness and yearning for the deceased.
b. cycling back to numbness if the pain is too severe.
c. avoiding the reality of the situation through denial.
d. picking up the pieces of one’s lives and constructing a new identity independent of the person who has died.

d
People may experience two different kinds of depression. Feeling sadness over future losses is known as ________ depression.

a. impulsive
b. responsive
c. reactive
d. preparatory

d
Penny is a 58-year-old woman who has smoked almost all of her life. She has recently been diagnosed with lung cancer. She is devastated, begins to go to church, and prays regularly. She promises to quit smoking and devote the rest of her life to the church if God will heal her. According to Kübler-Ross, Penny is in the ________ stage of death and dying.

a. denial
b. anger
c. depression
d. bargaining

d
Marlene has written a living will, including the request that should her condition become a vegetative state, respirators and other equipment sustaining her life should be removed. This act is known as ________ euthanasia.

a. supportive
b. assistive
c. voluntary active
d. passive

d
Which is accurate about how parents cope with the death of a child?

a. According to the text, losing a child greatly increases a parent’s chances of suicide.
b. Parents often suffer profound grief and feel that the natural order of the world has been violated, as children “should” outlive their parents.
c. Most parents suffer less grief over the death of a child compared to the grief caused by the death of a spouse whom they have known for many more years.
d. The death of a child is devastating, but most adults suffer more grief when losing their parents.

b
Which of the following is true about how children experience grief?

a. Children cannot understand the finality and universality of death. Truly grasping this concept begins around the age of 12 or 13.
b. Children are unable to attribute a loved one’s death to their own behaviors.
c. It is best to ease the pain of death for children with explanations such as “the person is just sleeping” or “taking a long vacation.”
d. Children may exhibit unanticipated behaviors like becoming upset for no apparent reason, or revert to sucking their thumb or wanting to sleep with their parents.

d
If someone’s death is confirmed by an electroencephalogram reading of electrical brain waves, the death
referred to is

a. local death.
b. brain death.
c. somatic death.
d. functional death.

b
SIDS ( sudden infant death syndrome) occurs more often between the ages of

a. birth and 2 months.
b. 2 and 4 months.
c. 4 and 6 months.
d. 6 and 8 months.

b
When children first think of death, they see death as
a. fun.
b. painless.
c. temporary.
d. unimportant.
c
Many adolescents have a sense of invulnerability which makes the concept of their death very difficult to comprehend. What is the likely source of the sense of invulnerability?

a. personal creed
b. personal fable
c. diminishing cognitive ability
d. metacognition skills which support assimilation

b
A significant drop in cognitive performance which foreshadows death is referred to as

a. terminal decline.
b. denial.
c. memory loss.
d. brain death.

a
A patient has developed a sense of hopelessness over her terminal illness, and she especially mourns over the approaching separation from her friends and family. This would coincide with which of Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying?

a. anger
b. denial
c. bargaining
d. depression

d
A legal document that informs both family and health-care workers of the signer’s wish to avoid the use of heroic measures to maintain life in the event of irreversible illness is called a(n)

a. living will.
b. donor’s will.
c. interstate will.
d. holographic will.

a
What do the letters “DNR” represent?

a. do not recover
b. do not respond
c. do not revitalize
d. do not resuscitate

d
Administering a lethal dose of a drug to hasten the death of a suffering person is an example of

a. passive euthanasia.
b. voluntary active euthanasia.
c. dyathanasia.
d. rational suicide.

b
The rate of suicide is highest for

a. children.
b. adolescents.
c. young adults.
d. the elderly.

d
When it comes to grief and bereavement, most people in Western societies

a. seek professional help for the death of a loved one.
b. are surprisingly ill-prepared for the death of a loved one.
c. become desensitized to death, even the death of a loved one.
d. are emotionally well-balanced, and readily accept the death of a loved one.

b
What percent of people show relatively deep depression following the loss of a loved one?

a. 3 to 5%
b. 15 to 30%
c. 50 to 55%
d. 75 to 80%

b
People who study death and dying are called
a. gerontologists.
b. thanatologists.
c. mortologists.
d. pathophysiologists.
b
Why is miscarriage exceptionally difficult for parents?

a. SIDS is well researched and very preventable.
b. Parents form bonds with the unborn child.
c. The level of hormones produced during pregnancy change.
d. Infant mortality rate in the U.S. is rare.

b
Children come to accept the universality of death by _____ years of age.

a. 4
b. 5
c. 7
d. 9

d
Wayne is 16 years old. He is most likely to die from
a. an accident.
b. suicide.
c. murder.
d. cancer.
a
Maude is 35 years old and has just found out that she is dying. She thinks that it is wrong that she is dying when a criminal her age is not. Maude is in what stage of dying?

a. denial
b. anger
c. bargaining
d. depression

b
The final stage of dying according to Kübler-Ross is

a. anger.
b. denial.
c. bargaining.
d. acceptance.

d
Which of the following is an accurate statement about hospice care?

a. Hospice patients die in their own home.
b. Hospice’s goal is to prolong life as much as possible.
c. No extraordinary or invasive means are used.
d. Hospice is another form of hospital care.

c
Rebecca is in the first stage of grief and thus will experience all of the following EXCEPT

a. shock.
b. disbelief
c. accommodation.
d. denial.

c
Functional death is defined by a(n)
a. absence of a brain wave.
b. inability to think, reason, or feel.
c. absence of heartbeat and breathing.
d. failure to respond to external stimuli.
c
The infant mortality rate for those under age 1 in the United States ranks _____ compared to the infant
mortality rate for other industrialized countries.

a. first
b. second
c. twelfth
d. twenty-second

d
At what age do children begin to develop a concept of death?

a. 2 years
b. 5 years
c. 6 years
d. 7 years

b
Most older patients who are going to die

a. want to know they are dying, but most doctors prefer not to tell them.
b. want to know they are dying, and most doctors prefer to tell them.
c. do not want to know they are dying, but most doctors prefer to tell them.
d. do not want to know they are dying, and most doctors prefer not to tell them.

a
What is the sequence in the stages of death, according to Kühler-Ross?

a. anger, denial, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. anger, bargaining, depression, denial, acceptance
c. bargaining, denial, anger, depression, acceptance
d. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

d
One significant criticism ofKübler-Ross’s work on dying is that

a. her data were based on women only.
b. her data were done from a small sample.
c. the concept of death is changing, and her conclusions may no longer be valid.
d. the stages are not universal and do not always occur in the same order.

d
What percentage of terminal patients do not want to be resuscitated?

a. 21%
b. 33%
c. 41%
d. 51%

b
Euthanasia is also known as

a. death-aid.
b. mercy killing.
c. dyathanasia.
d. rational suicide.

b
In the United States, death occurs most often in

a. hospices.
b. hospitals.
c. the home.
d. the workplace.

b
When you lose a loved one, the emotional response is called

a. bereavement.
b. grief.
c. coping.
d. bargaining.

b
Diane’s mother is 103 years old, and she experiences sadness regarding her mother’s mortality. Diane is experiencing
a. denial.
b. acceptance.
c. preparatory depression.
d. reactive depression.
c
How much higher than normal is the risk of death in the first year following the loss of a spouse?

a. 7 times
b. 17 times
c. 27 times
d. 37 times

a
What does the average funeral cost in the United States?

a. $1 ,000
b. $3,000
c. $7,000
d. $15,000

c
During childhood, the most frequent cause of death is

a. accidents.
b. SIDS.
c. homicide.
d. AIDS.

a
In early adulthood, the leading cause of death is

a. suicide.
b. accidents.
c. homicide.
d. AIDS.

b
The feelings of sadness based on events that have already occurred is
a. reactive depression
b. preparatory depression.
c. suttee.
d. acceptance.
a
Max has a terminal disease. In his prayers, he promises that he will give time to charitable causes if he is just allowed to live a few years more. Max is in which stage of dying?

a. denial
b. anger
c. bargaining
d. depression

c
A health care proxy

a. is a legal guardian of a terminally ill person’s estate.
b. is representative to make health-care decisions.
c. has assisted a loved one in suicide.
d. is a recipient of passive euthanasia.

b
In India, a traditional Hindu practice which is now illegal dictated that a widow throw herself on her husband ‘s funeral fire. This practice is called

a. suttee.
b. shivah.
c. wake.
d. mourning.

a
In order to help a child cope with death, adult caregivers should

a. explain that the person is just sleeping.
b. reassure the child that he or she is not to blame.
c. discourage expressions of grief.
d. expect the child to react as an adult would

b
Ego integrity or despair is viewed as the outcome of a long process of development by what theorist?
a. Peck
b. Baltes
c. Erikson
d. Levinson
c
An elderly woman has arthritis, which is progressively getting worse. She finds herself needing to learn to cope with these changes. If she is successful, what developmental task of Peck’s theory will she have
accomplished?

a. ego integrity versus despair
b. ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
c. body transcendence versus body preoccupation
d. redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role

c
Franklin, now 73, has been forced to retire from the autoplant he worked at all of his life. As he gets on with his life he attempts to redefine himself in ways that relate to work role. If he is successful, what developmental task of Peck’s theory will he have accomplished?

a. ego integrity versus despair
b. ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
c. body transcendence versus body preoccupation
d. redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work-role

d
Dominique is 63 years old and is beginning to view herself as “old.” According to Levinson she is
experiencing a

a. life review.
b. transition stage.
c. integrated personality.
d. selective optimization.

b
What percent of persons over the age of 65 live with other family members?

a. 33%
b. 66%
c. 75%
d. 80%

b
What percent of people spend the last part of their lives in nursing homes?

a. 5%
b. 16%
c. 25%
d. 40%

a
A woman has several relatives with diabetes and believes that she will experience the same problems that they have. When she is diagnosed with diabetes she decides “what’s the use,” and refuses to follow her doctor’s orders regarding diet and exercise. This process that becomes a downward cycle is called

a. dementia.
b. depression.
c. learned helplessness.
d. selective optimization.

c
Mohammed is in the retirement stage where he is considering his options and becoming engaged in
new, more fulfilling activities.

a. classic
b. honeymoon
c. reorientation
d. positive

c
In comparison to married individuals in late adulthood, never-married individuals report feeling

a. less lonely.
b. less healthy.
c. more lonely.
d. more healthy.

a
Which of the following statements about gender roles in late adulthood is true?

a. Husbands’ companionship needs tend to be greater than their wives’.
b. Wives’ companionship needs tend to be greater than their husbands’.
c. Both husbands’ and wives’ companionship needs are lower than in early adulthood.
d. Both husbands’ and wives’ companionships needs are greater than in early adulthood.

a
Gloria Heinemann and Patricia Evans proposed

a. stages of dying.
b. stages of retirement.
c. developmental tasks of old age.
d. stages of adjustment to widowhood.

d
The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals is called

a. battering.
b. elder abuse.
c. institutionalism.
d. learned helplessness.

b
Elderly people come to grips with their coming death in Peck’s stage of

a. ego integrity versus despair.
b. life review.
c. ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation.
d. reorientation and readjustment.

c
Maynard seems to fear almost everything: being ill, the future, being unable to cope. He is representative of which personality type?

a. disintegrated and disorganized
b. passive dependent
c. defended
d. integrated

b
The most successful individuals cope comfortably with aging. They are _____ personalities.

a. disintegrated and disorganized
b. passive dependent
c. defended
d. integrated

d
In cultures that have higher levels of esteem for old age

a. there is greater heterogeneity.
b. people have less responsibility as they age.
c. elderly people have little control over resources.
d. there is more homogeneity.

d
Research on disengagement theory indicates that

a. disengagement is always a negative experience.
b. disengagement is the predominant pattern of aging.
c. decreased emotional investment can be beneficial.
d. in non-Western cultures, disengagement is the norm.

c
Mrs. Chen goes to a care facility during week days while her daughter is at work, but is at home evenings and weekends. She goes to a(n)

a. nursing home.
b. continuing care community.
c. adult day-care facility.
d. skilled nursing facility.

c
The termination phase of retirement

a. occurs because of major physical deterioration.
b. is the first stage of retirement.
c. occurs at age 65 for most people.
d. is experienced by everyone.

a
What percent of divorces involve women over the age of 60?

a. 2%
b. 10%
c. 25%
d. 40%

a
Which of the following is a developmental task of later adulthood, according to Peck’s theory?

a. ego integrity versus despair
b. the life review
c. late life transition
d. redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role

d
The point in life in which people examine and evaluate their lives is known as the

a. life review.
b. life journey.
c. life integration.
d. life evaluation.

a
What theory suggests that successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age?

a. change theory
b. evolving theory
c. activity theory
d. integrity theory

c
The model of selective optimization with compensation was proposed by whom?

a. Peck
b. Erikson
c. Levinson
d. Baltes and Baltes

d
A woman needs full-time nursing care and is placed in a nursing home. She believes that she no longer has control over her environment and she then develops an indifference to life. What psychological reaction is she
experiencing?

a. dementia
b. life review
c. institutionalism
d. selective optimization

c
What percent of people age 65 or older live below the poverty line?

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 25%
d. 40%

b
Mr. Bond had been looking forward to retirement, but now that he is retired it is not what he thought it was going to be. He misses talking to customers and has difficulty keeping busy. What stage of retirement is he in?

a. termination
b. reorientation
c. disenchantment
d. retirement routine

c
What percent of women outlive their husband by at least a few years?

a. 30%
b. 50%
c. 70%
d. 90%

c
As Lewis approaches his 91 st birthday he begins to gain an increasing sense of acceptance of his mortality. He is successfully displaying which developmental task of Peck’s theory?

a. ego integrity versus despair
b. ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
c. body transcendence versus body preoccupation
d. redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work-role

b
The power structure of marriage in late adulthood changes in what way?

a. Both men and women become more assertive.
b. Both men and women become more affiliative.
c. Men become more assertive and women become more affiliative.
d. Men become more affiliative and women become more assertive.

d
The adaptation stage of adjusting to widowhood includes all of the following behaviors EXCEPT

a. reality testing.
b. reintegration.
c. formation of new friendships.
d. reorganizing roles.

a
Research on the Big Five personality traits indicates that

a. they are remarkably stable across adulthood.
b. there is no change over time.
c. only the trait of extroversion changes.
d. personality is fundamentally discontinuous.

a
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality traits?

a. conscientiousness
b. psychoticism
c. neuroticism
d. openness

b
Meredith is disgusted by the thought of aging, and thus she gets face lifts and frequently exercises in an attempt to ward off aging. She represents which personality type?

a. disintegrated and disorganized
b. passive-dependent
c. defended
d. integrated

c
Age stratification theories help explain why aging is viewed more positively in

a. highly industrialized societies.
b. less industrialized societies.
c. highly diverse and industrialized societies.
d. agrarian and industrialized societies alike.

b
Wisdom differs from intelligence in that wisdom

a. has a timeless quality.
b. is a trait of the young.
c. is related to the here-and-now.
d. can be measured more easily.

a
According to which theory do people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem?

a. disengagement
b. activity
c. life review
d. continuity

d
Gary has had an extremely difficult time accepting his aging. He now lives in a nursing home and experiences increasing amounts of despair as he ages. He represents which personality type?

a. disintegrated and disorganized
b. passive-dependent
c. defended
d. integrated

a
What percent of people caring for their spouses are women?

a. 10%
b. 29%
c. 50%
d. 75%

d
Research on grandparenting indicates that

a. grandfathers tend to be more involved with grandchildren.
b. most young adults express a preference for matemal grandmothers over paternal grandmothers.
c. white grandparents are more involved with grandchildren than are African American grandparents.
d. most great-grandparents have very close relationships with great grandchildren.

b
Specialists who study aging are called

a. ontologists.
b. thanatologists.
c. gerontologists.
d. endocrinologists.

c
The fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population is the

a. oldest old.
b. young old.
c. middle old.
d. middle adulthood.

a
Prejudice and discrimination directed at older people is called

a. bigotry.
b. ageism.
c. senescence.
d. gerontologism.

b
The fact that Ty’s pleasant memories are more likely recalled than his unpleasant memories reflects the

a. denial principle.
b. positive outlook principle.
c. Pollyanna principle.
d. general compensation principle.

c
Hearing loss is found in what percent of people over the age of 75?

a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

b
Hypertension is also known as

a. hypotension.
b. osteoporosis.
c. atherosclerosis.
d. high blood pressure.

d
Psychological problems are seen in what percent of people over the age of 65?

a. 15-25%
b. 45-50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

a
A progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion is called

a. Hodgkin’s disease.
b. Alzheimer’s disease.
c. Parkinson’s disease.
d. Huntington’s disease.

b
What is the primary determinant of whether an elderly person will engage in sexual activity?

a. susceptibility to cultural taboos
b. adaptation to changes in sexual functioning
c. good health and previous, regular sexual activity
d. previous psychologically healthy sexual relationship

c
What theory suggests that our body’s DNA genetic code contains a built-in time limit for the reproduction of human cells?

a. wear-and-tear theory
b. peripheral slowing hypothesis
c. generalized slowing hypothesis
d. genetic preprogramming theory

d
Cross-sectional methods are sometimes used in studying intelligence in older people. This can be a problem because cross-sectional methods do not take into account

a. cohort effects.
b. attrition effects.
c. cognitive effects.
d. All of these answers are correct.

a
When older people are riding a bike or walking, they are calling upon a form of memory called

a. sensory memory.
b. implicit memory.
c. semantic memory.
d. autobiographical memory.

b
After a man retired, he noticed that his memory did not seem as good. His decline in memory is probably due to

a. biological factors.
b. environmental factors.
c. information-processing deficits.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d
About how many people over the age of 85 suffer from dementia?

a. one-quarter
b. one-third
c. one-half
d. two-thirds

b
Secondary aging is related to all of the following EXCEPT

a. illness.
b. health habits.
c. senescence.
d. potentially avoidable factors.

c
Which explanation of slower reactions in older people is based on slowing throughout the body?

a. wear and tear
b. peripheral slowing hypothesis
c. generalized slowing hypothesis
d. genetic preprogramming

c
Biologically, Alzheimer’s occurs when production of what protein goes awry?

a. acetycholine
b. collagen
c. dopamine
d. beta amyloid precursor

d
Which theory of aging encompasses the impact of free radicals?
a. preprogrammed
b. wear and tear
c. generalized slowing
d. peripheral
b
Which approach to postponing aging includes replacing worn-out organs?

a. bionic
b. talomere
c. free radicals
d. restricting calories

a
Teri has memories of general facts such as simple arithmetic and the names of U.S. presidents, which reflects the functioning of her _____ memory.

a. semantic
b. episodic
c. implicit
d. autobiographical

a
What percent of the U.S. population will be over age 65 by the year 2050?

a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%

d
Rose Marie is 80 years old, and as thus demographers would classify her as the

a. oldest old.
b. young old.
c. dying old.
d. old old.

d
If a doctor feels that a patient is a likely candidate for osteoporosis in later life, the doctor prescribes exercise, plus

a. niacin and vitamin C.
b. vitamin B.
c. riboflavin.
d. calcium and protein.

d
Carlos believes all old people are senile, mentally deteriorating, and useless. His views reflect

a. ageism.
b. cultural norms.
c. bigotry.
d. the true state of aging adults.

a
Joe’s alcoholism over the course of his life has caused increased deterioration in his physical aging. This phenomenon reflects

a. primary aging.
b. secondary aging.
c. senescence.
d. senility.

b
Telomeres are

a. tiny productive areas of DNA at tip of chromosomes.
b. toxins in the air.
b. life obstacles that can’t be predicted.
d. antioxidant vitamins used for aging.

a
The awry production of _____ in Mary’s old age has caused her to develop a progressive brain disorder that
has produced a loss of memory and confusion.

a. neurotransmitters
b. alpha hydroxyl protein
c. calcium
d. beta amyloid precursor protein

d
Drugs that are currently under study for use in treating Alzheimer’s disease show the most promise if they are related to the

a. brain inflammation that occurs.
b. dysfunction of the immune system.
c. loss of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
d. hormone imbalances that may produce the disease.

c
For persons over the age of70, what percent have sex with their spouses about once per week?

a. 5%
b. 50%
c. 46%
d. 66%

d
What theory of aging compares the human body to a machine that simply breaks down as a result of constant use?

a. cellular theory
b. free radicals theory
c. cross-linkage theory
d. wear-and-tear theory

d
What happens to the brain as we age?

a. Most neurotransmitters are increased.
b. Blood flow is increased.
c. It becomes smaller and lighter.
d. It becomes heavier and denser.

c
Even when memory declines can be directly traced to aging, they are limited primarily to

a. episodic memory.
b. implicit memory.
c. semantic memory.
d. autobiographical memory.

a
What explanation for memory changes in old age views older adults as concentrating less, and having greater difficulty focusing on appropriate stimuli and organizing material in memory?

a. biological factors
b. environmental factors
c. information-processing deficits
d. wear and tear

c
Negative views of the elderly

a. prevail in United States society.
b. were common one hundred years ago.
c. are common in most Asian societies.
d. are traditional in Native Americans.

a
Which of the following does NOT affect vision in old age?

a. The lenses become less transparent.
b. The pupils widen.
c. The optic nerve becomes less efficient.
d. The number of optic cells decreases drastically.

b
Decrease in the sense of taste can be traced to

a. reduced ability to smell.
b. increase in taste buds.
c. hypertension.
d. Alzheimer’s disease.

a
Older people pay _____ % of their total expenditures on health care.
a. 1
b. 3
c. 12
d. 15
c
By 1990, the average life expectancy had increased to over _____ years.

a. 47
b. 68
c. 75
d. 80

c
Schaie’s study of aging found that

a. abilities decline uniformly from age 30.
b. abilities show severe decline by age 67.
c. significant individual differences are found.
d. intellectual decline is strictly genetic.

c
Memories about which people are not aware are

a. semantic.
b. episodic.
c. implicit.
d. autobiographical.

c
In the generativity-versus-stagnation stage, Erikson believed people

a. develop a sense of competence.
b. become aware of the uniqueness of self.
c. consider their contributions to family and society.
d. develop loving, sexual relationships and close friendships.

c
Levinson theorized that during early adulthood people construct a broad, comprehensive vision of the future.
He calls this
a. The Plan.
b. The Dream.
c. Settling Down.
d. The Blueprint.
b
What approach views personality development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age related
crises?

a. stability model
b. life events model
c. normative-crisis model
d. personal growth model

c
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is a

a. stability model.
b. life events model.
c. normative-crisis model.
d. personal growth model.

c
If you were to look at a graph of marital satisfaction over time, what shape would it be?
a. linear incline
b. linear decline
c. bell-shaped curve
d. U-shaped configuration
d
When people have to move back home because they cannot find a job after graduating from college, they are referred to as

a. yo-yo children.
b. sandwich children.
c. boomerang children.
d. empty nest children.

c
Maxilias is a 56-year-old grandparent; his grandchildren view him as a friend and know that they can count on him for any type of support. What type of grandparenting has Maxillas adopted?

a. remote
b. involved
c. arbitrator
d. companionate

d
Why is it easier for middle-aged men to remarry than middle-aged women?

a. marriage gradient
b. child-care status
c. attractiveness
d. employability

a
What is the second stage of marital aggression?

a. tension building stage
b. overreaction stage
c. loving contrition stage
d. acute battering incident stage

d
Which stage of violence helps explain why many wives remain with abusive husbands and are the continuing victims of abuse?

a. overreaction stage
b. loving contrition stage
c. tension building stage
d. acute hattering incident stage

b
_____ satisfaction is related to middle adults’ _____ satisfaction.

a. Marital; job
b. Job; family
c. Family; peer
d. Sexual; marital

d
Research indicates that every time the unemployment rate goes up 1%, there is a rise in

a. crime.
b. suicide.
c. homicide.
d. spousal abuse.

b
Vaillant suggested that an important period during middle adulthood is

a. keeping the meaning versus rigidity.
b. generativity versus stagnation.
c. transformations of development.
d. life events versus normative crises.

a
Which of the following is an accurate statement concerning Levinson’s theory?

a. He found that men and women go through a similar dream process.
b. His original study was based solely on women.
c. He overstated his findings.
d. He failed to generalize his findings adequately.

c
Who suggested that there is substantial change in personality over time?

a. Gould and Freud
b. Costa and McCrae
c. Erikson and Levinson
d. Vaillant and Gould

c
Research on subjective well-being has shown that
a. there are wide variations in happiness Ievels.
b. only 10% ofpeople rate themselves as “very happy.”
c. money does buy happiness.
d. men and women rate themselves as equally happy.
d
About one woman in __ who is in her first marriage will get divorced after the age of 40.

a. four
b. six
c. eight
d. ten

c
Couples in second marriages tend to

a. be more romantic.
b. be more flexible.
c. have more durable marriages.
d. experience less stress.

b
Grandparents who are actively engaged in grandparenting and have influence over their grandchildren’s lives are

a. companionate.
b. involved.
c. remote.
d. coparents.

b
The idea that events in one’s life determines the course of personality development was suggested by

a. Levinson.
b. Gould.
c. Helson.
d. Erikson.

c
lf a person does not successfully complete the generativity-versus-stagnation stage, the result would be

a. trivialization of one’s activities.
b. fear of relationships with others.
c. regret over lost opportunities in life.
d. inability to identify appropriate roles in life.

a
During Levinson’s midlife transition, people confront the knowledge that

a. their children no longer need them.
b. their employer does not need them any longer.
c. they will make only a finite amount of money in their life.
d. they will be unable to accomplish all of their aims before they die.

d
The particular events in an adult’s life, rather than age per se, is suggested as the determinant of the course of personality development by which theory?

a. stability model
b. life events model
c. normative-crisis model
d. personal growth model

b
Kyle was the last sibling in his family to move out of his parents’ home on his own. What period in the family life cycle is occurring?

a. kinkeeper
b. empty nest
c. role reversal
d. launching adolescents

b
Couples who in middle adulthood must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents are
known as the

a. yo-yo parents.
b. sandwich generation.
c. boomerang parents.
d. empty nest parents.

b
What percent of marriages in the U.S. are characterized by continuing, severe violence?

a. 2%
b. 5%
c. 10%
d. 15%

d
The cycle-of-violence hypothesis states that abuse and neglect of children lead them to be

a. victims in adult life.
b. insecure and withdrawn adults.
c. more sympathetic to others as adults.
d. predisposed to abusiveness as adults.

d
Alexis is an aloof grandparent who sees her grandchildren on only very rare occasions. She knows little of
what is happening in their Jives and makes little attempt to get involved. What type of grandparenting is Alexis displaying?

a. morbid
b. remote
c. defensive
d. uninvolved

b
Spousal abuse occurs in what percent of all marriages?

a. 2%
b. 10%
c. 20%
d. 25%

d
A worker complains that she feels physically and emotionally exhausted from her work. She is probably experiencing

a. burnout.
b. role strain.
c. role conflict.
d. professional obsolescence.

a
Middle-aged people average about how much TV each week?

a. 10 hours
b. 15 hours
c. 25 hours
d. 40 hours

b
Who proposed that people experience developmental transformations?

a. Erikson
b. Vaillant
c. Levinson
d. Gould

d
Research on midlife crisis indicates that

a. it is a widespread phenomenon.
b. the majority of people regard midlife as stressful.
c. people in midlife focus on the present.
d. most middle-aged people feel older than they really are.

c
The Big Five personality traits include all of the following EXCEPT

a. neuroticism.
b. aggressiveness.
c. openness.
d. conscientiousness.

b
Middle-age couples cite all of the following sources of satisfaction EXCEPT

a. their spouse is their best friend.
b. their marriage was a long-term commitment.
c. their sexual activity has increased.
d. their spouse has grown more interesting.

c
What percent of divorced people remarry?

a. 5-10%
b. 25-30%
c. 45-50%
d. 75-80%

d
The care of aging parents

a. involves a significant degree of role reversal.
b. is usually equally shared among siblings.
c. usually falls to the oldest son.
d. is most likely to create severe conflicts.

a
Which segment of society is NOT affected by family violence?
a. religious families
b. single-parent families
c. affluent families
d. All types of families are affected.
d
According to a growing body of research, adults’ _____ remains stable over time.

a. marital satisfaction
b. friendships
c. subjective well-being
d. job satisfaction

c
Which of the following is NOT suggested as a way to deal with spousal abuse?

a. fighting back
b. calling the police
c. seek a safe haven
d. seek a restraining order

a

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