PSY101 memories

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George Miller found that the average person is able to keep about ____ digits in mind at a time.
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seven
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When an old piece of information interferes with your
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proactive
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The memory problem called retroactive interference happens when
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leaning new information interferes with your memory of old information.
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Tim can remember what he had for lunch yesterday. This is an example of aan
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episodic memory.
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Explicit memory, also called ____ memory, can be clearly stated or explained
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declarative
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The memory of how to perform a task is
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implicit memory
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Endel Tulving, the cognitive psychologist, classifies memories according to the
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type of information stored.
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The two types of explicit memory described by Tulving are
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semantic and episodic memory.
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The memory of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as
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episodic memory.
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Abe and Rose, who have been married for 13 years, are discussing the
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episodic
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Your recollection of the humiliating lecture you received after you were
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episodic
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Recall of what your professor said in class and recall of what you wore that day are
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semantic and episodic
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General knowledge of history, algebra, and literature refers to ____ memory.
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semantic
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The type of memory one would use to remember the seven wonders of the
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semantic memory.
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When stating \”I know….\” you are referring to a(n) ____ memory
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semantic; episodic
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In-line skating and tap dancing skills would be stored in ____ memory.
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implicit
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The distinction between semantic and procedural memory is
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what it was and how one did it.
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Which of the following is most likely to remain firmly embedded in
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how to swim
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Tracy took tennis lessons when she was very young but had not
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implicit
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Once we have learned the multiplication tables the recall of 6 times 6 is
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priming
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The story about a woman with amnesia who was able to dial her mother’s
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implicit
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____ memory is recalling information that was previously learned
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Retrospective; prospective
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Which of the following use prospective memory?
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none of the above
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The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, and
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prospective memory.
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Which of the following is not a type of prospective memory?
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knowledge-based tasks.
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Which of the following causes a decline in both prospective and retrospective memory?
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aging
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The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called
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encoding.
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The stages of information processing in memory are
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encoding, storage, and retrieval
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Jason, straining his eyes on the deck of a ship, is trying to memorize distant
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visual code.
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Which of the following is not a psychological format that can be
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sensory code
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Which of the following could be used to store \”The Star Spangled Banner\” song
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acoustic code
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What type of code represents stimuli in terms of their meaning?
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semantic code
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Ludwig, a cellist, is memorizing a musical composition by heart without reference to
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acoustic code.
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Mimi is memorizing the Bill of Rights in relation to the legal cases in
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semantic code.
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____ means maintaining information over time.
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Storage
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Mentally repeating a list or saying it to yourself refers to
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maintenance rehearsal
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By mentally repeating a telephone number after looking it up for the
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maintenance rehearsal
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While doing his homework, Joe noticed that he was having difficulty with
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metamemory.
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Our awareness of the functioning of our memory is defined by psychologists as
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metamemory.
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Extending the semantic meaning of something you already know refers to
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elaborative rehearsal.
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Using the phrase \”Elvis’ Guitar Broke Down on Friday\” to remember the
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elaborative rehearsal.
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The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is
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retrieval.
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Locating stored information and returning it to consciousness is
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retrieval.
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The correct order of events in memory processing is
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encoding, storage, and retrieval
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Sofia is taking a chemistry exam. She has not studied conscientiously for
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encoding failure
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Roberto is taking a physics exam. Although he has studied thoroughly
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information retrieval
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The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved is called
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memory.
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Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as
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sensory, short-term, and long-term
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n the Atkinson and Shiffrin stages of memory, the progress of information
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determines whether and how long information is retained.
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The eyes fixate from point to point several times each second. This is called
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saccadic eye movements.
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While Tanya is visiting the pet store she looks down an aisle and catches
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both a and b
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Humans experience a \”stream of consciousness\” rather than discrete
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sensory memory briefly holds perceptions, making them seem connected.
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The stage of memory that first encounters stimuli is called
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sensory.
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If an image of Abraham Lincoln’s face was flashed on
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memory trace.
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The turn of the century psychologist McDougall found
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four or five letters in a single fixation
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In 1960, George Sperling modified McDougall’s method of ____
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whole-report procedure; partial-report procedure
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George Sperling’s experiment determined that
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both a and b.
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The significance of Sperling’s partial-report procedure study is
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sensory
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Psychologist believe that we possess a sensory register for
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each of our sensory systems.
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Mental representations of visual stimuli are referred to as ____
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icons; iconic
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Another term for \”photographic memory\” is
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eidetic imagery.
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Photographic memory involves
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iconic memory and eidetic imagery.
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What causes the flow of visual information to
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iconic memory
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Visual experience appears as a smooth and continuous
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iconic memory; saccadic eye movements
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You are taking notes, while listening to a lecture
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echoes; echoic
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Visual images are to ____ memory as auditory images are to
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iconic; echoic
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The sensory register that holds the mental representations
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echoic memory.
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Memory traces of sounds
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decay more slowly than those of visual stimuli.
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The memory that enables one to hold information for
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both a and b.
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One will generally encode visual stimuli into auditory
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both a and b
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Visual stimuli are most commonly retained in short-term memory by
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encoding visual stimuli as sounds that can be rehearsed
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Aaron has just been given a telephone number of a
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around 10 seconds
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Dana can only remember a few of the first and last items on her
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serial-position effect.
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Information at the beginning and end of a list tends to be more easily recalled than
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serial-position effect.
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Jim had received driving directions to his destination from
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the middle of the sequence.
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Paul can only remember the conclusions of his speech. This is an example of the
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serial-position effect.
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Amy is trying to remember her social security number, while
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Rehearse the set of numbers keeping them in the 3 chunks format.
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According to George Miller
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the number of pieces of information the average person can easily recall after a single exposure.
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After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friend’s
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chunking
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The typical maximum number of chunks of information that can be held is
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seven.
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The telephone number of Brad’s financial services firm is
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it consists of only two chunks of information that are meaningfully related to his business.
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The ability to remember the letters of the alphabet or the words in the
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rote memory.
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Mechanical association learning used by an actor to memorize his lines
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rote memory.
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Preventing rehearsal can ____ information contained in short-term memory.
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reduce
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The appearance of new information in short-term memory
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limited.
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The process by which new information displaces older information in
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the capacity of short-term memory is variable
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According to Atkinson and Shiffren, the third stage of information processing is
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long-term memory.
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Which of the following statements would Freud disagree with
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Our ideas and perceptions may appear lost because they were never properly encoded.
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The evidence for the popular idea that all of our experiences are
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arguable.
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The way in which we conceptualize our worlds, our beliefs, and o
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schemas.
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Rosalind, a forward on the women’s basketball team, has invited Bryce
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She does not fit his schema of her dresses.
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A person that reconstructs their experience according to their prejudices is
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allowing a schema to influence their recall.
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Loftus and Palmer showed people a film of a car crash and then asked them to
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\”smashed into\”
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The idea that long-term memories are
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recollections of a car crash can be influenced by the way in which it is labeled.
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All of the following are problems with eyewitness testimony EXCEPT
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Children make better witnesses because they are less suggestible than adults.
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Elizabeth Loftus research on eyewitness memory suggests that memory
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All of the above
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According to Elizabeth Loftus, the most significant cause of memory is
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misleading information
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Experts suggest that witnesses to a crime
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contaminate their own memory of the event.
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The Lost in the Mall study illustrated that
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both a and b
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Which of the following is NOT true regarding long-term memory?
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There is a tendency to replace new information with old information.
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Danielle, a college senior, is trying to remember the names
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she has not yet found the cues that will help her retrieve the information from long-term memory
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A psychology student wants to know how to remember the
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elaborative
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The difference between rote learning and meaningful learning is
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maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal.
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Some language arts teachers like to say, \”Another language, another soul.\” The
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elaborative rehearsal.
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While studying for an astronomy exam, Haley realizes that the swirling motion of
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elaborative rehearsal.
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Craik and Lockhart argue that memory storage and recall depends upon the ____
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depth
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The ____ model of memory proposes that memory consists of
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levels-of-processing
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Henry learned that the word diplomat originates from two Greek stems
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elaborative rehearsal
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What is meant by the word \”deeply\” in the statement
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All of the above
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Which of the following is an example of processing new information \”deeply.\”
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both a and b
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Susan, Judd, and Melanie work at a music store in the mall
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Judd
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The mnemonic device \”i before e except after c\” is based upon a(n)
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semantic code
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Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing
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flashbulb memory.
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Emotionally charged events that arrest public interest, like the attacks of
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flashbulb memories.
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The vivid, detailed recollection of what you were doing when you learned about
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flashbulb memory.
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Flashbulb memories seem vivid for
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Dramatic events stimulate the brain to produce exact or photographic memories.
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Which of the following is true regarding long-term memory organization?
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All of the above
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____ is formed in long-term memory by organizing information into groups
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Hierarchical structure
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Using the hierarchical structure of your long-term memory of
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All of the above
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Evan met Lesley at a party last week. He sees her again a few weeks after
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tip of the tongue phenomenon.
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Zelda is trying to remember the name of the actor who played the lead in the
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tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon.
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One conclusion of Brown and McNeil’s classic study of the
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acoustic and semantic codes.
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Some of the participants in the Brown and McNeil TOT experiments proved to
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incomplete or imperfect learning.
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Research suggests that our memories of the past are
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people tend to seek out positive events and avoid negative ones
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Evidence from a number of studies demonstrates that recall is ____
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worse; context-dependent
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Jill prefers to study for tests in the classroom where the tests are
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context-dependant
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Jennie returned to her elementary school when she was visiting her
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context-dependent memory
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Detective Rawlings asked Harry, a witness to a mugging, to mentally reconstruct the
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context-dependent memory
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DĂ©jĂ  vu is an example of ____ memory.
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context-dependant
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One afternoon Amanda could not remember where she left her purse. In the
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state-dependent memory
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In the effects of mood on memory, a happy mood may evoke
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state-dependent memory.
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Brooke drinks so much coffee that she
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Drink enough coffee to give herself the jitters again
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The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of
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Hermann Ebbinghaus.
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Remembering nonsense syllables is difficult because they are
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acoustic coding and maintenance rehearsal.
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A student taking a multiple-choice exam generally relies on the ____
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recognition
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n preparing for the 40th high school reunion, Jill and Ed correctly identified
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recognition.
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In taking the position that only fill-in-the-blank tests are suitable for
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recall
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The memory task for most of the items in a multiple-choice test, such as
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recognition.
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Nonsense syllables are sometimes arranged as paired associates,
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recall.
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The paired associates task is used to measure the ____ memory task.
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recall
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Peter, a participant in a paired associate learning experiment, noted that
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both semantic and acoustic encoding
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The difference between the number of times required to learn
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savings.
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The concept of method of savings was developed by Ebbinghaus to study
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relearning
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In Ebbinghaus’s classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs
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most rapidly just after the material is initially learned
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Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of
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interference theory.
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According to interference theory we forget material because
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a and b only
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Joy just learned to speak French, but she notices
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retroactive interference.
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Beatrice took four years of Spanish in high school. In college she studied
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retroactive interference
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At college Jim is learning to speak French, but he keeps using
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proactive interference.
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George just bought a new laptop computer after years of using a
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proactive interference.
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Which of the following statements is true regarding Freud’s concept of repression?
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All of the above
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Psychoanalysts believe that dissociative amnesia involves
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repression.
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Fred’s history professor exhibits traits similar to those of
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repression.
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Bill recently found out that when he was a child his dog, which he thought was
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repression.
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The lack of support for the existence of recovered memories is based on
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Both a and b
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Freud discovered that many patients could not recall episodes that
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infantile
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The text presents several methods to improve memory skills. Which
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Avoid using familiar associations.
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In the Method of Loci, the material to be learned is associated with
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familiar images.
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The memory strategy called ____ relies on forming associations by linking two items
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mediation
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Mnemonic devices can incorporate chunks of information into a format such as
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all of the above
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A psychoanalytical explanation of infantile amnesia would include
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a and b only
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Which of the following is a physiological factor contributing to infantile amnesia?
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both b and c
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Jessica was upset because she was unable to remember her 4th birthday party
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a or b
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In ____ amnesia, there are memory lapses for the period following a trauma
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anterograde
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Anterograde amnesia interferes with many memory processes such as
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all of the above
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One of the symptoms of anterograde amnesia is
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a failure to establish memories after the injury, but a preservation of memories prior to the injury.
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Bill was in an automobile accident. The events just prior to the accident are still a
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retrograde
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Which of the following is a cognitive factor associated with infantile amnesia?
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Infants do not reliably use language to symbolize or classify events.
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In ____ amnesia, the trauma prevents patients from remembering events that
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retrograde
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The surviving bodyguard in Princess Diana’s car was unable to recall
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retrograde amnesia.
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The clinical effects of head trauma suggest
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a period of consolidation
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____ are viewed as electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
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Engrams
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In searching for the engram, Karl Lashley was in reality looking for the biological
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memory.
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Which of the following are thought to be involved in the biochemical process of
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both a and b
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Research on the biology of memory involving the visual cortex of
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memories may have neural correlates at specific sites
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When sea snails, such as Aplysia and Hermissenda, are conditioned,
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serotonin
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The enhanced efficiency in a synapse after brief rapid stimulation that makes
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long-term potentiation.
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Low levels of ____ are correlated with memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease.
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acetylcholine
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All of the following naturally occurring chemical substances have been
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adrenaline and noradrenaline.
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The structural changes in the brain that take place with the formation of
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hippocampus.
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Joe is a long-term alcoholic who has great difficulty storing new information in
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hippocampus
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After a stroke destroyed a large area of his frontal lobe, Dwight was less able to integrate
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place and time.
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It appears that storage bins for long-term memories are located in
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different brain areas.
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What part of the memory system is the prefrontal cortex thought to play?
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executive center
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After an industrial accident in which he experienced a penetrating
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hippocampus.
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Damage to the ____ disrupts the formation of ____ memories
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thalamus; verbal

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