PSY 3404C CH.7

The schedule that is not an intermittent schedule is
FR 1
The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
frustration
Resurgence may help account for
regression
George trains a pigeon to peck a disk by reinforcing each disk peck. Once the response is learned, George begins to cut back on the reinforcers. At first he reinforces every other response, then every third response, every fifth response, every tenth response, and so on. George is using a procedure called
stretching the ratio
Of the following, the schedule that most closely resembles noncontingent reinforcement is
FT
One explanation for the PRE implies that the effect is really an illusion. This is the
response unit hypothesis
In schedules research, VD stands for
variable duration
A schedule that does not require the performance of a particular behavior is the
FT schedule
Stanley wants to determine which of two reinforcement schedules is more attractive to rats. He trains a rat to press a lever for food, and then puts the rat into an experimental chamber containing two levers. Pressing one lever produces reinforcement on an FR 10 schedule; pressing the other lever produces reinforcement on an FI 10″ schedule. Lever pressing is on a
concurrent schedule
When reinforcement is contingent on continuous performance of an activity, a __________. reinforcement schedule is in force.
duration
Things are going pretty well for George (see item 26) until he jumps from reinforcing every tenth response to reinforcing every 50th response. At this point, the pigeon responds erratically and nearly stops responding entirely. George’s pigeon is suffering from
ratio strain
Studies of choice involve
concurrent schedules
The thinner of two schedules, VR 5 and VR 10, is VR 10.
True
In a _____ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for some period of time.
fixed duration
Harry spent his summer in the city panhandling. Every day he would sit on the sidewalk, put a cardboard sign in front of him that said, “Please help,” and place his hat on the sidewalk upside down. Then he would wait. Every now and then someone would put money into his hat. Harry’s reinforcement schedule is best described as a
variable time schedule
The schedule that is likely to produce a cumulative record with scallops is the
FI schedule
Bill spends his summer in the city panhandling. Every day he takes a position on a busy corner and accosts passersby saying, “Can you spare some change?” Most people ignore him, but every now and then someone gives him money. Bill’s reinforcement schedule is best described as a
variable ratio schedule
Extinction often increases the variability of behavior.
True
A schedule that does not require the performance of a particular behavior is the
FT schedule
In VI schedules, the reinforcer occurs periodically regardless of what the organism does.
False
schedules differ from other schedules in that the rules describing the contingencies change systematically.
Progressive
A pigeon is confronted with two disks, one green, the other red. The bird receives food on a VI 20″ schedule when it pecks the green disk, and on a VI 10″ schedule when it pecks the red one. You predict that the bird will peck
the red disk about twice as often as the green disk
Although important, the matching law is restricted to a narrow range of species, responses, reinforcers, and reinforcement schedules.
False
FT and VT are both kinds of ______ reinforcement.
noncontingent
Extinction often increases the frequency of emotional behavior.
True
When reinforcement is contingent on continuous performance of an activity, a __________. reinforcement schedule is in force.
duration
John spent his summer picking cantaloupes for a farmer. The farmer paid John a certain amount for every basket of cantaloupes picked. John worked on a
fixed ratio schedule
When food is the reinforcer, it is possible to stretch the ratio to the point at which an animal expends more energy than it receives.
True
In schedules research, VD stands for
variable duration
Gradually reducing the frequency of reinforcement is called
stretching the ratio
Shirley trains a rat to press a lever and then reinforces lever presses on an FR 10 schedule when a red light is on, and an FI 10″ schedule when a green light is on. In this case, lever pressing is on a
multiple schedule
CRF is synonymous with
FR 1
Post-reinforcement pauses are now often referred to as
pre-ratio pauses
The schedule that is not an intermittent schedule is
FR 1
A classic work on reinforcement schedules is by
Ferster and Skinner
When using punishment to suppress an undesirable behavior, it is important to provide alternative means of obtaining the reinforcers that have maintained that behavior.
True
All of the following enhance the effectiveness of punishment except
increasing the reinforcer deprivation level
When disciplining their son, Jacob, Mr. and Ms Grinch begin with an extremely mild form of punishment and gradually increase its strength if the offenses continue. This procedure is likely to result in
the use of excessively strong aversives
Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!” However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that
Charles’s behavior has not been punished
In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n)
aversive
Harriet hears a noise in the kitchen and investigates. She finds the cookie jar in pieces on the floor and 5-year-old Willy standing nearby. Harriet knows what happened, but asks Willy anyway. Willy admits that he broke the jar while trying to get cookies. Harriet gives Willy a spanking. Willy is most likely to learn from this experience that
it doesn’t pay to tell the truth
Positive punishment is most often confused with
negative reinforcement
The word positive in positive punishment refers to the fact that
something is added
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
False
An early theory of punishment proposed that response suppression occurred because aversives disrupt ongoing behavior.
True
David Camp and colleagues found that, compared to a two-second delay in punishment, a 30-second delay resulted in
about half as much response suppression
Research has shown that abnormal behavior is often
an inappropriate way of obtaining appropriate reinforcers
If a rat receives a shock each time it presses a lever, but not otherwise, we can say that
shock is contingent on lever pressing
The first formal studies of punishment were probably done by
Thorndike
The two-process theory of punishment assumes that punishment involves
Pavlovian and operant learning
Differential reinforcement is best used in combination with
extinction
Each time Charles, who has a lisp, says “Mithithippi” or the like, his wife, Evelyn, yells, “Idiot!” However, there is no evidence that Evelyn’s efforts to reduce the frequency of such mispronunciations have been effective. We can therefore conclude that
Charles’s behavior has not been punished
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
False
All of the following enhance the effectiveness of punishment except
increasing the reinforcer deprivation level
Murray Sidman’s book on aversive control, including punishment, is called
Coercion and Its Fallout
Negative punishment is also sometimes called ______ training.
penalty
If Charles Catania’s thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the following are true of punishment except
the consequence of the behavior must be negative
When a student repeatedly behaves in an inappropriate way, probably the teacher’s first step should be to
try to discover what is reinforcing the behavior
The term punishment, as used by behavior scientists, has nothing to do with retribution.
True
Although punishment can have negative side effects, there is evidence that it can also have positive side effects.
True
Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem. Gable’s approach is best described as an example of
response prevention
In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n)
aversive
One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining reinforcement.
True
David Camp and colleagues found that even a delay of only _____ reduced the effectiveness of a punisher.
2 seconds
Generally speaking, the more intense a punisher, the
more it suppresses behavior
Positive punishment is most often confused with
negative reinforcement
The one-process theory of punishment goes back to
Thorndike
The word positive in positive punishment refers to the fact that
something is added
Frequent use of weak punishers is more effective than occasional use of intense punishers.
False
Of the following procedures, the one that focuses on reducing the rate at which a behavior occurs is
DRL
At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
True
Carr and McDowell found that Jim’s scratching was reinforced mainly by
parental attention
Most teachers reprimand students more often than they praise them.
True
A study by John Austin and colleagues increased safe practices in roofers by providing those who followed safe practices at least 80% of the time with
time off
Edward Taub’s treatment of people with paralyzed limbs emerged from research with
monkeys
Charles Madsen and his colleagues asked a teacher to _______ . This change in teacher behavior produced a marked reduction in misconduct .
ignore misbehavior and praise students when they behaved well
In the treatment of long-standing self-injurious behavior, punishment is often
effective
Skinner devised a mechanical teaching machine that divided the material to be learned into short segments called
frames
Lovaas and Simmons used punishment to reduce self-injurious behavior in a boy. Before treatment, this boy would hit himself at a rate of up to
30 times a minute
Hal __________ pioneered the use of operant procedures to improve the quality of life of captive wild animals.
Markowitz
Brad Alford’s study of the man who thought he was followed by a witch is an example of
an ABA design experiment
In the treatment of long-standing self-injurious behavior, punishment is often
effective
Hopkins and Conard found that when teachers made a few simple changes in how they taught, changes that included a shift from reprimands and threats to praise and positive feedback, students advanced at ______ the normal rate in reading.
more than twice
A study by John Austin and colleagues increased safe practices in roofers by providing those who followed safe practices at least 80% of the time with
time off
Time out is a form of punishment.
True
Skinner devised a mechanical teaching machine that divided the material to be learned into short segments called
frames
Most teachers reprimand students more often than they praise them.
True
Skinner’s teaching machines presented the student with some information, then asked a question. The reinforcer for answering correctly was
the opportunity to move on to the next frame
John gets into fights on a regular basis, always with formidable opponents. He has often been injured in these fights and knows that he runs the risk of sustaining serious brain damage or other permanent injuries, yet he continues to fight. John is a very successful professional boxer. This example illustrates that bizarre behavior
is less puzzling when the reinforcers maintaining it are known
The first true teaching machines were built by B. F. Skinner.
True
Efforts to treat stroke victims with paralyzed limbs have proved unsuccessful.
False
Ivar Lovaas first noticed that aversives could reduce self-injurious behavior when he absentmindedly slapped a child who was banging his head against a wall.
True
Wesley Becker suggests that parents should think of themselves as
teachers
The Lamere study found that performance-based bonuses improved productivity, but there was no difference between the effects of a 9% bonus and a 3% bonus.
True
Taub’s research suggests that one reason people do not recover following a stroke or injury that causes paralysis is because they do not use the damaged limb.
True
Betty Hart and Todd Risley found that the parents who provided the most instruction and practice in language later had the children with the best-developed verbal skills.
True
Research suggests that bonuses based on employee performance can improve productivity
and reduce company costs
A highly effective web-based instructional program designed to teach reading that makes use of reinforcement and shaping is called
Headsprout
Jack is a homeless man who lives on the streets of New York City. One cold January night he takes up a position outside a fancy restaurant and starts shouting, “God has ordered an equestrian invasion of Long Island.” The restaurant owner calls the police and they take Jack to a hospital, where he spends a quiet night. You look into Jack’s medical history and find that he
has been hospitalized for bizarre behavior in the winter more than in other seasons
is the idea that any problem behavior that is eliminated through learning-based treatment will be replaced by a new problem behavior.
Symptom substitution
The author of your text suggests that the worst orphanages illustrate the importance of operant learning to normal child development.
True
At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
True
Research demonstrates that when teachers provide positive consequences for good behavior and ignore minor misbehavior, the usual result is an increase in both good and bad behavior.
False
Carr and McDowell found that Jim’s scratching was reinforced mainly by
parental attention
Hal __________ pioneered the use of operant procedures to improve the quality of life of captive wild animals.
Markowitz
refers to the point at which a behavior stops or its rate falls off sharply.
Break point
Your text reports the case of a man who apparently made hundreds of harassing phone calls. The man’s behavior was most likley on a(n)
VR schedule
FT and VT are both kinds of ______ reinforcement.
noncontingent
Williams found that the greater the number of reinforcements before extinction, the
greater the number of responses during extinction
One difference between FT and FI schedules is that in FT schedules, reinforcement is not contingent on a behavior.
True
In VI schedules, the reinforcer occurs periodically regardless of what the organism does.
False
In a _____ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for some period of time.
fixed duration
When a response is placed on extinction, there is often an increase in emotional behavior.
True
John spent his summer picking cantaloupes for a farmer. The farmer paid John a certain amount for every basket of cantaloupes picked. John worked on a
fixed ratio schedule
The explanation of the PRE that puts greatest emphasis on internal cues is the ________ hypothesis.
frustration
When a student repeatedly behaves in an inappropriate way, probably the teacher’s first step should be to
try to discover what is reinforcing the behavior
Negative punishment is also sometimes called ______ training.
penalty
If Charles Catania’s thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the following are true of punishment except
the consequence of the behavior must be negative
In using punishment, it is best to begin with a weak punisher and gradually increase its strength as needed.
False
The two-process theory of punishment assumes that punishment involves
Pavlovian and operant learning
An early theory of punishment proposed that response suppression occurred because aversives disrupt ongoing behavior.
True
One way to make punishment more effective is to provide an alternative means of obtaining reinforcement.
True
David Camp and colleagues found that, compared to a two-second delay in punishment, a 30-second delay resulted in
about half as much response suppression
Delaying delivery of a punisher is most likely to
reduce its effectiveness
When using punishment to suppress an undesirable behavior, it is important to provide alternative means of obtaining the reinforcers that have maintained that behavior.
True
David Camp and colleagues found that even a delay of only _____ reduced the effectiveness of a punisher.
2 seconds
Of the following procedures, the one that focuses on reducing the rate at which a behavior occurs is
DRL
The use of punishers is so common that _______ concluded that “The world runs on fear.”
Jack Michaels
When disciplining their son, Jacob, Mr. and Ms Grinch begin with an extremely mild form of punishment and gradually increase its strength if the offenses continue. This procedure is likely to result in
the use of excessively strong aversives
Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem. Gable’s approach is best described as an example of
response prevention
Hal __________ pioneered the use of operant procedures to improve the quality of life of captive wild animals.
Markowitz
The Lamere study found that performance-based bonuses improved productivity, but there was no difference between the effects of a 9% bonus and a 3% bonus.
True
Ivar Lovaas first noticed that aversives could reduce self-injurious behavior when he absentmindedly slapped a child who was banging his head against a wall.
True
Wesley Becker suggests that parents should think of themselves as
teachers
John gets into fights on a regular basis, always with formidable opponents. He has often been injured in these fights and knows that he runs the risk of sustaining serious brain damage or other permanent injuries, yet he continues to fight. John is a very successful professional boxer. This example illustrates that bizarre behavior
is less puzzling when the reinforcers maintaining it are known
Betty Hart and Todd Risley found that the parents who provided the most instruction and practice in language later had the children with the best-developed verbal skills.
True
Charles Madsen and his colleagues asked a teacher to _______ . This change in teacher behavior produced a marked reduction in misconduct
ignore misbehavior and praise students when they behaved well
Hopkins and Conard found that when teachers made a few simple changes in how they taught, changes that included a shift from reprimands and threats to praise and positive feedback, students advanced at ______ the normal rate in reading.
more than twice
Eddie McNamara’s study showed that praising students when they are “on task” does not increase the frequency of on-task behavior in adolescents.
False
Time out is a form of punishment.
True
The author of your text suggests that the worst orphanages illustrate the importance of operant learning to normal child development.
True
Most teachers reprimand students more often than they praise them.
True
Self-injurious behavior sometimes occurs in healthy people, including college students.
True
In the treatment of long-standing self-injurious behavior, punishment is often
effective
Lovaas and Simmons used punishment to reduce self-injurious behavior in a boy. Before treatment, this boy would hit himself at a rate of up to
30 times a minute
Layng and Andronis reported the case of a psychiatric patient who feared that her head was falling off. This delusion appeared to be due to the fact that it got her social contact from the staff.
True
Skinner’s teaching machines presented the student with some information, then asked a question. The reinforcer for answering correctly was
the opportunity to move on to the next frame
A study by John Austin and colleagues increased safe practices in roofers by providing those who followed safe practices at least 80% of the time with
time off
Efforts to treat stroke victims with paralyzed limbs have proved unsuccessful.
False
Research demonstrates that when teachers provide positive consequences for good behavior and ignore minor misbehavior, the usual result is an increase in both good and bad behavior.
False
Carr and McDowell found that Jim’s scratching was reinforced mainly by
parental attention
Your text describes the use of _______ to get a bull elephant to cooperate with having his toenails trimmed.
shaping
A highly effective web-based instructional program designed to teach reading that makes use of reinforcement and shaping is called
Headsprout
is the idea that any problem behavior that is eliminated through learning-based treatment will be replaced by a new problem behavior.
Symptom substitution
Jack is a homeless man who lives on the streets of New York City. One cold January night he takes up a position outside a fancy restaurant and starts shouting, “God has ordered an equestrian invasion of Long Island.” The restaurant owner calls the police and they take Jack to a hospital, where he spends a quiet night. You look into Jack’s medical history and find that he
has been hospitalized for bizarre behavior in the winter more than in other seasons
Social observational learning may be defined as
a change in behavior due to observing a model
In a study by Hopper and colleagues, some observers watched a model slide a door and retrieve a desired item. Other observers saw the door slide in the absence of a model, revealing the desired item. The latter procedure is called the __________ condition.
ghost
Videotapes of flossing monkeys suggest that mother monkeys attempt to teach their infants how to floss through modeling.
True
Jill is an impressionable 17-year-old college freshman with average academic skills. She lives in the college dorms with two roommates. One of them, Martha, is bright, attractive, popular, rich, and a local celebrity because of her singing; she seldom studies. Jill’s other roommate, Ann, is also bright, but has only a few friends, wears inexpensive clothes, and plays the tuba poorly; she studies all the time. On the basis of what you know about observational learning, you predict that Jill will
flunk out
Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is
retentional processes
Little of classroom learning is observational.
False
Herbert and Harsh compared the behavior of cats that had observed a model perform an act 30 times with cats that had observed only 15 performances. They found that
cats that observed 30 performances did substantially better than those that observed 15
The book, The Last Gentleman Adventurer, includes an anecdote that illustrates cross-species observational learning.
True
A panel of experts reviewed studies on the influence of violence depicted on television and in films on the aggressive behavior of children. They found that the evidence for a causal connection between viewing such violence and aggressive behavior was
overwhelming
Lyons, Young, and Keil actively encouraged children not to imitate the acts of a model that were irrelevant to solving a problem. The result was that the children
imitated the irrelevant acts
You hear on the radio that Smash, the most popular rock music performer in Germany, has killed himself. He left a note (“Goodbye, cruel world”). You predict that
there will be a rash of suicides or suicidal gestures among German rock music fans
The influence of literary models on behavior was seen in the 18th century with the publication of
The Sorrows of Young Werther
In the Thompson and Russell two-mat study, children who observed a model
did better than those who did not observe a model
Lyons, Young, and Keil actively encouraged children not to imitate the acts of a model that were irrelevant to solving a problem. The result was that the children
imitated the irrelevant acts
According to the author of your text, observational learning involves observing
events and their consequences.
Research suggests that some students who do not naturally learn from a model can be taught the skills necessary to do so.
True
Experiments on asocial observational learning raise the question of the extent to which the social variety is truly social.
True
Herbert and Harsh demonstrated observational learning in cats.
True
In Bandura’s theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation to improve later recall of a model’s behavior are called
retentional processes
Observing a model is particularly helpful if the task involved is easy.
False
Social observational learning may be defined as
a change in behavior due to observing a model
Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models. In their study, the observers
listened to models on a tape
The operant learning model of observational learning takes the
natural science approach
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called
generalized imitation
Research suggests that humans tend to imitate behavior that is irrelevant to obtaining reinforcers.
True
Those who are most likely to learn from observing a model are probably
adults
Some researchers believe that the tendency of humans to imitate irrelevant modeled acts is beneficial.
True
The book, The Last Gentleman Adventurer, includes an anecdote that illustrates cross-species observational learning.
True
If an observer watches a well-trained model perform a response, the procedure is not really observational learning.
False
If an observer looks on as a model’s behavior is reinforced, we speak of
vicarious reinforcement
Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In observational learning, the experience consists of
observing events and their consequences
The first studies of observational learning
failed to find evidence of observational learning in animals
All studies of observational learning involve learning to solve a problem or perform a skill.
False
Primatologist Elizabeth Lornsdorf found that wild young female chimps are more likely than males to learn about
termite fishing
Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is
retentional processes
Howard studied hard for his math test and found that what he learned helped him on his physics test. Howard benefited from
generalization
Herrnstein and others trained pigeons to respond to images of people. The researchers did this by pinpointing a single defining feature (such as hair) on which the birds could discriminate humans from other objects.
False
In ______, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that matches a standard.
matching to sample
When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an S^DSD, but not in the presence of an S^-, we can say the behavior is
under stimulus control
The figures below illustrate various generalization gradients. The greatest degree of generalization is depicted by Figure
2
A dog learns to salivate at the sound of a soft buzzer, but not at the sound of a loud buzzer. After training, the dog is presented with buzzers of various volumes. You predict that the dog will salivate most in response to a buzzer that is
slightly softer than the CS+
The flatter the generalization curve, the greater the degree of generalization.
True
Response maintenance can be considered generalization across
time
The person whose name is most associated with errorless discrimination training is
Herbert Terrace
The findings of Eisenberger and others concerning increasing effort is called
learned industriousness
The findings of Eisenberger and others concerning increasing effort is called
learned industriousness
The tendency of changes in one behavior to spread to other behaviors is called __________ generalization.
response
Jill trains her dog, Boozer, to come to her when she snaps her fingers. She snaps her fingers, then gives the dog a bit of food when it approaches. Finger snapping is
SD
In stimulus generalization, a behavior “travels” from one situation to another.
True
With discrimination training, pigeons have learned to discriminate between paintings by Monet and Picasso, even when the pictures were ones they had never seen before.
True
In the Dweck and Repucci study, teachers asked students to work on unsolvable problems, and then on problems that could be solved. They failed to solve the second set of problems, but were able to solve similar problems when the problems were presented
by a different teacher
When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an SD, but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is
under stimulus control
Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist with words such as nasty, evil, and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably receive the lowest rating.
social worker
Herrnstein and others trained pigeons to respond to images of people. The researchers did this by pinpointing a single defining feature (such as hair) on which the birds could discriminate humans from other objects.
False
You test Mary’s drawing ability by having her draw fruit, animals, landscapes, and houses. Mary then takes a drawing class in which she learns to draw human figures. You decide to test Mary again to see if her drawing ability has improved. You predict that if she shows any improvement at all it will be at drawing
animals
In _______ discrimination training, the SD and SΔ are presented at the same time.
simultaneous
The figures below illustrate various generalization gradients. The greatest degree of generalization is depicted by Figure
2
Spence’s theory anticipated the discovery of the peak shift phenomenon.
True
Generalization is sometimes called
transfer
Pigeons that have learned to peck a disc when two lights of the same color come on, and not when the lights differ, can be said to have learned a concept.
True
Concepts involve both generalization and discrimination.
True
Generalization is a by-product of learning that nearly always occurs spontaneously.
False
An SD is analogous to a
CS+
Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates
generalization
Dweck and Repucci had teachers give students unsolvable problems, and then problems that could be solved. The result was that the students
failed to solve the problems in the second set
Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This
reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
The person whose name is most associated with errorless discrimination training is
Herbert Terrace
An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
SD
A dog learns to salivate at the sound of a soft buzzer, but not at the sound of a loud buzzer. After training, the dog is presented with buzzers of various volumes. You predict that the dog will salivate most in response to a buzzer that is
slightly softer than the CS+
Robert Allan trained pigeons to peck pictures containing human figures. He found that birds
pecked the human figures
Harry Bahrick’s studies of forgetting have involved retention inervals of up to
five decades
The work of Levine and Murphy suggests that people are more likely to forget what they read if they
disagree with it
Declarative knowledge is also called explicit knowledge.
True
Forgetting can be studied by requiring the subject to match a stimulus presented earlier, a procedure called
DMTS
The term _______ memory refers to learned behavior that can be expressed, usually in words.
declarative
The “savings method” is one way of measuring forgetting.
True
The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess pieces were arranged in random order,
chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of learning.
True
The names of the Great Lakes can be recalled with help of the acronym,
HOMES
In one of Rovee-Collier`s experiments with babies and mobiles, after a retention interval there was no sign of forgetting when the context was the same as that during training.
True
The first person to demonstrate the relationship between forgetting and degree of learning was probably
Ebbinghaus
A study of immobilized cockroaches showed the importance of ________________ in forgetting.
retroactive interference
Declarative knowledge is also called explicit knowledge.
true
The term _______ memory refers to learned behavior that can be expressed, usually in words.
declarative
Memories that cannot be expressed are called
nondeclarative
To measure forgetting, Ebbinghaus used the ____________ method.
relearning
The “savings method” is one way of measuring forgetting.
True
The “man who couldn’t forget” was studied by
Luria
When measuring forgetting using the extinction method, the behavior studied is
put on extinction after the retention interval
Loftus found that eyewitness reports are influenced by the words used to ask about the event. In one experiment, she found that use of the word “smashed” produced higher estimates of car speed than use of the word
hit
When what we learned on Monday interferes with our ability to recall what we learned the following Tuesday, we speak of
proactive interference
Sir Frederick Barlett’s classic study of forgetting used the story,
The War of the Ghosts
Harry Bahrick’s studies of forgetting have involved retention inervals of up to
five decades
t turns out that Jack (see item 7) can’t remember anything that happened from the time he and Jill started up the hill. Jill takes Jack up the hill again and finds that he remembers seeing the well before. Jill is measuring forgetting by using
prompted recall
One measure of forgetting is called delayed matching to sample. This procedures could be considered a form of
prompted recall
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of learning.
True
Forgetting is a deterioration in learned performance following a period without practice.
True
Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called gradient
degradation
Marjory memorized her part in the school play thoroughly in her apartment, but found that she couldn’t remember her lines at rehearsal. Her trouble is consistent with the effects of context cues.
True
The name Benton Underwood is associated with paired associate learning.
True
In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B when presented with A.
paired associate
The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
False
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of
learning
The work of Levine and Murphy suggests that people are more likely to forget what they read if they
disagree with it
Clark’s nutcrackers apparently recall the location of something like _________ food caches.
2,000
Extinction often increases the frequency of emotional behavior.
True
Your text reports the case of a man who apparently made hundreds of harassing phone calls. The man’s behavior was most likley on a(n
VR schedule
In a _____ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on the continuous performance of a behavior for some period of time.
fixed duration
In a multiple schedule, the organism is forced to choose between two or more reinforcement schedules.
False
The first formal studies of punishment were probably done by _________ .
Thorndike
If Charles Catania’s thinking about reinforcement is applied to punishment, we can say that all of the following are true of punishment except _______.
the consequence of the behavior must be negative
The use of punishers is so common that _______ concluded that “The world runs on fear.”
Jack Michaels
In positive punishment, a stimulus that serves as a punisher is called a(n)
aversive
Layng and Andronis reported the case of a psychiatric patient who feared that her head was falling off. This delusion appeared to be due to the fact that it got her social contact from the staff.
True
At Morningside Academy, student achievement test scores in reading and math typically rise two grade levels in one school year.
True
Skinner devised a mechanical teaching machine that divided the material to be learned into short segments called
frames
Wesley Becker suggests that parents should think of themselves as
teachers
Betty Hart and Todd Risley found that the parents who provided the most instruction and practice in language later had the children with the best-developed verbal skills.
True
Jack is a homeless man who lives on the streets of New York City. One cold January night he takes up a position outside a fancy restaurant and starts shouting, “God has ordered an equestrian invasion of Long Island.” The restaurant owner calls the police and they take Jack to a hospital, where he spends a quiet night. You look into Jack’s medical history and find that he
has been hospitalized for bizarre behavior in the winter more than in other seasons
In a study by Hopper and colleagues, some observers watched a model slide a door and retrieve a desired item. Other observers saw the door slide in the absence of a model, revealing the desired item. The latter procedure is called the __________ condition.
ghost
Experiments on asocial observational learning raise the question of the extent to which the social variety is truly social.
True
In the Thompson and Russell two-mat study, children who observed a model
did better than those who did not observe a model
Kanfer and Marston found that college students imitated the reinforced word choices of models, even though the observers did not see the models.
True
Fisher and Harris found that observers learned more when a model
frowned and shook her head
Although the consequences of a model’s behavior have a strong influence on an observer’s tendency to imitate the model’s behavior, ultimately the consequences of the observer’s behavior tend to win out.
True
In the study by Thompson and Russell, there was a toy on a mat, but it was out of reach. Children learned to retrieve the toy by observing a model who pulled the mat closer.
False
In Bandura’s theory of observational learning, steps taken during observation to improve later recall of a model’s behavior are called
retentional processes
You hear on the radio that Smash, the most popular rock music performer in Germany, has killed himself. He left a note (“Goodbye, cruel world”). You predict that
there will be a rash of suicides or suicidal gestures among German rock music fans
The earliest experiments on observational learning were performed by
E. L. Thorndike
Herbert and Harsh compared the behavior of cats that had observed a model perform an act 30 times with cats that had observed only 15 performances. They found that
cats that observed 30 performances did substantially better than those that observed 15
Of the following terms, the one most associated with Bandura’s theory is
retentional processes
The kind of generalization your text focuses on is
stimulus generalization
The figures below illustrate various generalization gradients. The greatest degree of generalization is depicted by Figure
2
Generalization is sometimes called
transfer
In stimulus generalization, a behavior “travels” from one situation to another.
True
Honig and Slivka trained pigeons to peck discs of various colors. After this they began shocking the birds when they pecked a disc of a particular color. This
reduced pecking discs of all colors, but especially those that resembled the punished color
In a classic study, Guttman and Kalish trained pigeons to peck a disc of a particular color, and then gave them the opportunity to peck
discs of various colors
An ________ is a stimulus that indicates that a particular behavior will be reinforced.
SD
Robert Eisenberger found that rewarding a high level of effort on one task increases the level of effort on other tasks. This illustrates
generalization
In errorless discrimination training
he S^{Delta} is introduced in very weak form and its strength is gradually increased
Concepts involve both generalization and discrimination.
True
If a person smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, in a year, cigarette smoking is reinforced
73,000 times
In _______ discrimination training, the S^DSD and S^{Delta}SΔ are presented at the same time.
simultaneous
When what we learned on Monday interferes with our ability to recall what we learned the following Tuesday, we speak of ____________.
proactive interference
The Jenkins and Dallenback study of forgetting after sleep suggests that forgetting is a function of learning.
True
Declarative knowledge is also called explicit knowledge.
True
The “man who couldn’t forget” was studied by
Luria
Forgetting is a deterioration in learned performance following a period without practice.
True
Riding a bicycle is an example of _____ memory.
procedural
Loftus found that eyewitness reports are influenced by the words used to ask about the event. In one experiment, she found that use of the word “smashed” produced higher estimates of car speed than use of the word
hit
The measure of forgetting called gradient degradation has to do with extinction.
False
Forgetting can be measured as a flattening of the generalization gradient, a procedure called gradient
degradation
Sir Frederick Barlett’s classic study of forgetting used the story,
The War of the Ghosts
When measuring forgetting using the extinction method, the behavior studied i
put on extinction after the retention interval
In one of Rovee-Collier`s experiments with babies and mobiles, after a retention interval there was no sign of forgetting when the context was the same as that during training.
True