PSY 100 Chapter 3

the cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the
suprachiasmatic nucleus

compared with their counterparts of 80 years ago, teenagers today average___sleep each night
2 hours less

sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
stage 2

during which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing and genital arousal?
REM sleep

the sleep cycle is approximately___minutes
90 minutes long

the effects of chronic sleep deprivations are___
suppression of the immune system, altered metabolic and hormonal functioning, impaired creativity

one effect of sleeping pills is to
decrease REM sleep

cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by
blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells

which of the following is classified as a depressant?
a. methamphetamine
c. marijuana
d. alcohol

which of the following preventive measures would have the greatest impact on average life expectancy?
a. eliminating obesity
b. eliminating smoking
c. eliminating sleep deprivation
d. eliminating binge drinking
eliminating smoking

which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true?
a. people will do anything under hypnosis
b. hypnosis is the same as sleeping
c. hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior
d. hypnosis improves memory recall
c. hypnosis is in part an extension of the division

people who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. the fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ___ theory of dreaming.
information processing

according to freud, dreams are
a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes

psychoactive drugs, affect behavior and perception through
alteration of neural activity in the brain

all of the following are common questions about addiction EXCEPT whether
a. a person almost always needs professional therapy to overcome an addiction
b. psychoactive and medicinal drugs very quickly lead to addiction
c. biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction
d. many other repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors fit the the addiction as disease needing treatment model
c. biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction

at its beginning, psychology focused on the study of.

which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
a. dreams facilitate information processing.
b.dreaming stimulates the developing brain
c. dreams result from random neural activity originating in the brain stem.
d. dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation
d. dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation

the sleep waking cycles of young people who stay up too late typically are____hours in duration.
twenty five

the lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by
c. african-americans

surface meaning of dreams
manifest content

deeper meaning of dreams
latent content

stages of sleep associated with delta waves
stages 3 and 4

stages of sleep associated with muscular relaxation
REM sleep

sleep disorder in which breathing stops
sleep apnea

sleep disorder occurring in stage 4 sleep
night terrors



simultaneous unconscious and conscious tracks
dual processing

disorder in which sleep attacks occur

study of how brain activity is linked to mental activity
cognitive neuroscience

twilight stage of sleep associated with imagery resembling hallucinations
Stage 1

As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following?
A) daydreaming
B) sleeping
C) hypnosis
D) all of the above
D) all of the above

which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
a. adults spend more time than infants in REM sleep
b. REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.
c. people deprived of REM sleep adopt easily.
d. sleeping medications tend to increase REM sleep.
b. Rem sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.

the perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is direct elsewhere is
inattentional blindness

alcohol has the most profound effect on
the transfer of experiences to long term memory

a person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely
awake and relaxed

circadian rhythms are the
regular body cycles that occur on a 24 hr schedule

a person who requires increasing amounts of a drug in order to feel its effect is said to have developed

which of the following is not an example of biological rhythm?
a. circadian rhythm
b. 90 min sleep cycle
c. the five sleep stages
d. sudden sleep attacks during the day
d sudden sleep attacks during the day

which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep
a. genital arousal
b. increased muscular tension
c. night terrors
d. alpha waves
a. genital arousal

which of the following is not a stimulant?
d. alcohol, it is a depressant

hypnotic resonsiveness is
greater when people are led to expect it

according to hilgard, hypnosis is
a dissociation between different levels of consciousness

which of the following was NOT cited in the text as evidence that heredity influenced alcohol use?
a. children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of times
b. boys who are impulsive and fearless at age 6 are more likely to drink as teenagers
c. lab mice have been selectively bred to prefer alcohol to water
d. adopted children are more susceptible if one or both of their biological parents have a history of alcohol dependence
a. children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of times

as a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is
no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis

which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs?
a. family strength
b. religiosity
c. school adjustment
d. peer influence
d. peer influence

THC is the major active ingredient in

those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon ague that ‘hypnotized’ individuals are
merely acting out their role

consciousness is defined in the text as
our awareness of ourselves and our environment

i am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. what am i?

according to the activation synthesis theory, dreaming represents
the brain’s efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity.

how a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on
the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the users expectations and personality, the situation in which the drug is taken

drug that is both a stimulant and a mild hallucinogen

drugs that increase energy and stimulate neural activity

brain wave of awake, relaxed person

brain wave activity during stage 2 of sleep
sleep spindle

sleep stage associated with dreaming

drugs that reduce anxiety and depress central nervous system activity

natural painkillers produced by the brain

focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
selective attention

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

theory that dreaming reflects our erotic drives
Freud’s theory

a split between different levels of consciousness

neurotransmitter that LSD resembles

type of biological rhythm:
Circadian: circa (about) dian (day) daily, from the Latin roots words

An example to illustrate major terms related to biological rhythms
Martha McClintock in 1970: menstrual synchrony
Possible reasons: lifestyle, chemical (pheromones – chemical that one organism releases that changes the behavior of another organism)
Results of the sweat study: Yes, odor changes pheromone effect in humans
Other studies on pheromone effects in humans: hanging around males makes women more fertile (pheromones)

Rhythms are maintained by internal clocks

These clocks can be “reset” by environmental cues

The environmental cues that reset clocks. German for “time giver.”

What is the major concept about circadian rhythms in humans?
Normal internal day is slightly more than 24 hours long (24+ up to 25 for some people). Thus, it must be reset regularly or our cycle gradually moves forward in time.
The dominant zeitgeber for humans circadian rhythms is light, although there are others (timing of eat, social activity, etc.)

Applications of research on human circadian rhythms
Helping students realize that sleepiness and depression can be caused by irregular schedules that prevent their rhythms from being resent. Research has suggested strategies for resetting these rhythms.
Help industries create shift work schedules that are more compatible with these rhythms.
Help look for cures for mental disorders that might be partly circadian rhythms disorders, such as seasonal affective (emotional) disorder (SAD).
Medicine and chronobiology (study of time to take medication)

psychoactive drugs
drugs that influence behavior, mood, or consciousness.

What is Drug Abuse?
Pattern of pathological use (such as intoxicated all day or inability to decrease use)
Impairment in social or occupational functioning
At least one months’ duration

What causes Drug Abuse?
Family history (genetics)
Availability (use and age of use)
Context in which you use it

psychological dependence
addicted to routine of the drug or role of drug in in life

physical reaction when a person stops using a drug

when physiology of the body changes in specific ways. Most drugs that addicts causes tolerance.

less response to a specific does with repeated use. Cross-tolerance also occurs (tolerance to one substance/drug and automatically tolerant to another drug never taken).

stimulant drugs:
caffiene, cocane, and amphetamines

Activates brain, alerts. At least three mechanisms:
Adenosine is created in the brain and binds onto adenosine receptors. Binding causes drowsiness by slowing down nerve cell activity. Adenosine puts the brakes on your brain.
Caffeine looks like adenosine to your brain; it binds on but without slowing activity.
Also increases dopamine in the brain by blocking reuptake.
Tolerance develops and there is withdrawal after 18 hours, often in users of 5 or more cups per day.

symptoms of a panic attack

The American Psychiatric Association recognizes four caffeine-induced disorders:
Caffeine intoxication
C-induced sleep disorder
C-induced anxiety disorder
C-related disorder not otherwise specified