Proteins c

How many combinations are possible for a chain of n amino acids?
20^n amino acids are possible
What types of bonds can hold structure of protein chain together?
S-S disulfide bonds between them
List 2 nona peptides with different biological functions?
Vasopressin and oxytocin
Very small changes alter function
What is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein?
Proteolytic enzymes
What 2 enzymes cleave the proteins?
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin
How are spiral clock-wise coils held together?
Hydrogen bonding between carbonyl of one amide linkage and NH of another
How are beta pleated sheets held together?
hydrogen bonding between carbonyl of one amide linkage and NH of another in parallel chains
In an alpha Helix, where are the R groups pointed?
R groups are pointed outward from helix
How many amino acids per turn of the helix are there in an alpha helix?
3.5
Where do the NH groups point in an alpha helix?
point in the same direction, parallel to the axis of the helix
Where do the c=o groups point in an alpha helix?
point in the opposite direction, parallel to the axis
Where do the six atoms of each peptide bond lie in a beta pleated sheet?
in the same plane
Where are the c=o and N-H groups of peptide bonds from adjacent chains pointing?
Point towards each other and are int he same plane so that hydrogen bonding is possible between them
Where do the R groups in beta sheets point?
Alternate, above and below the plane
What is the C=O group of each peptide bond hydrogen bonded to in the alpha helix?
Hydrogen bonded to the N-H group of the peptide bond four amino acid units away from it.
What causes the arrangement of helices, sheets and so forth in a tertiary structure?
Interactions of the side chains
What are some forces that stabilize a tertiary structure?
side chain hydrogen bonding; disulfide bond; hydrophobic interactions-leucene, valene, Isoleucine; metal ion+ coordination between the coo= groups
What is an example of covalent bonding in a tertiary structure?
Disulfide bonds between cysteine side chains
What type of bonding in Tertiary structures is indicative of bonding between OH groups?
Hydrogen bonding
What is another name of metal-ion coordination in tertiary structures?
electrostatic interaction
What is a salt bridge in tertiary structures?
Attraction of NH3+ group of lysine and COO- group of aspartic acid
What is an example in tertiary structures when side chains move away from water?
Hydrophobic interactions; between the nonpolar side chains of phenylalanine and isoleucine
What are the 2 major types of proteins?
Fibrous and Globular
Is Keratin a fibrous or globular tertiary protein?
Fibrous
Is Albumin a fibrous or globular tertiary protein?
Globular
What shape are fibrous proteins?
Linear
What shape are globular proteins?
Spherical
Are all proteins soluable in water?
No
Which proteins are soluable in water?
Colloid globular
Where are the hydrophobic side chains in fibrous linear proteins?
Folded so hydophobic side chains are on the exterior
Where are the hydrophilic side chains in globular tertiary proteins?
Hydrophilic side chains are directed to the exterior
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