properties of a substance&phase changes

organization of a solidtightly packed
organization of a liquidless-packed, free flowing and shaped like the container
organization of a gasvery loosely packed, random motion

energy of particles for a solidlow(no movement/vibrates)
energy of particles for a liquidmedium(some movement)
energy of particles for gashigh(a lot of movement)
attraction between particles for solidstrong
attraction between particles for a liquidmedium
attraction between particles for a gaslittle to no attraction
boilingvapor pressure>atmospheric pressure, occurs throughout a liquid
evaporationprocess of substance going from a liquid->gas at the surface of a liquid(gains energy from gas-air above it)
evaporation in open container for a liquidevaporation at the surface
evaporation in closed container for a liquid“dynamic equilibrium”- particles will evaporate into a gas while gas particles condense back to a liquid
vapor pressure for liquidspressure caused by vapor above a liquid on the walls of a container
crystalline solidsolid that is highly organic with particles ordered by repeating patterns
amorphous solidssolids with no internal organization(glass, rubber, plastic)
allotropessubstances that have the same formula

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but different structures, leads to different properties
kinetic molecular theory of gases1. particles move in random, straight line motion
2. particles do not lose energy when they collide with each other or their container(elastic collisions)
3. particles are so tiny that we can consider their volume to be insignificant
4. particles have no attraction to each other
gas pressureforce exerted by a gas on the walls of a container
what creates pressure?collision between gases particles and container walls
atmospheric pressurepressure caused by particles colliding in the air
vapor pressure for a gaspressure exerted by gas right above the surface of a liquid
units of pressure1 atm=760 mmHg= 101.3 kPa
kinetic energyenergy of motion
temperatureaverage kinetic energy
why do we need to use kelvin?measure to the point where all motion of particles stop.(no negative temps)(absolute zero)
standard temperature0* C
Pressure(STP)1 atm=760 mmHg= 101.3 kPa
average kinetic energyhighest point of the slope
slowest moving particlesthe beginning of the slope(where it starts)
fastest moving particlesend of the slope
C->Kadd away(+273)
K->Csubtract 273
normal melting pointthe point of melting occurs at standard pressure(solid to liquid)
normal boiling pointstandard pressure(liquid to gas)
triple pointall 3 states of matter can exist(all phase changes can occur)
critical pointpoint at which the liquid and gas phases are indistinguishable
Sublimationsolid to gas
depositiongas to solid
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