Promotion and Promotion prospects
The findings in this observation refer to the last argument that Females may not be receiving the same opportunities as males. 68% of females said they did not supervise others in their current job and only 46% of them said they felt there was some prospect of promotion in their current employment. Males however had a much greater belief they would be promoted. 56% believing there was a chance they would be promoted in the future. Also 42% of males supervised others. Job satisfaction In all the categories females seemed to be more satisfied than males.
This does not match up with the other observations. Males seem to get paid better and have more prospects in their jobs yet females are more satisfied in the workplace than them? This may be because there is more social pressure on men to be the breadwinner and to succeed in their careers than there is for women Health Although, as previously mentioned, the TUC believed that women were more prone to work related illnesses. The results from this sample showed that men believed the state of their health was poorer than females did.
However this result may have been different if Doctors were consulted as every ones impression of a good state of health is different. Recent education 2. 5% of employed females in the sample had taken part in education or training from an educational institute within the past year. Only 2% of employed males had done the same. Although this is only a difference of 0. 5% it still shows that more women have taken part in training and education for their work to increase their human capital. However more males believe they will be and have been promoted than females. Males also earn over i?? 2. 00 or 31. 5% more an hour than females.
Pension Although females feel more secure in their jobs than males do only 49% of them are contributing towards a company pension while 54% of males are making contributions. This may be because more females are working on a temporary or contract basis. Previous research concerning the “rational bias” theory of workplace discrimination has been confined largely to narrow student samples. This study extends that work with an experimental-survey design in which employed participants were asked both how others respond to conditions classically eliciting rational bias discrimination, and how they believe people behave in their own firms.
Participants were 148 men and 158 women (88. 6% Caucasian, 4. 6% Hispanic, 4% Asian, and 2. 8% other racial identification) with graduate business degrees front a public university. Results show evidence of continuing discrimination, and support the theory predicting rational bias gender discrimination in the workplace. Gender of respondent and locus of control (defined by Spector’s Work Locus of Control scale) are also shown to be related to rational bias discrimination. Suggestions are made for further development and resting of rational bias theory.
This study examines the processes underlying gender discrimination in a large Australian government research organization. It is specifically concerned with discrimination that occurs after the initial assignment of employees to career streams or ladders has occurred. When questioned, 37 and 41 percent of the women surveyed stated that they had regularly experienced promotional or day-to-day discrimination. Based on analyses of data collected from 625 women and 512 men, evidence is presented for a vested interest explanation as best accounting for promotional discrimination, as distinct from day-to-day discrimination.
These findings highlight the need to recognize and treat different forms of gender discrimination in the workplace as analytically distinct. There might be much talk of the age of equality, but according to a report by the Equal Opportunities Commission, women are still getting a rough deal in the workplace and in society in general. The report says that women continue to face a life of poverty. Women over 40 received less than half of men’s average incomes and still did not qualify for social security benefit in many cases.
Research also found that women who took a career break to look after a member of the family found that their lower pay made it harder for them to safeguard their income when they were out of work. “At the moment, women with caring responsibilities bear the brunt of the mismatch between their work patterns and the benefit system,” said Kamlesh, Bahl, chairwoman of the Equal Opportunities Commission. The EOC report comes a day after the United Nations issued its survey on women employed by Western firms.
While women make up 40 per cent of the labour force and outnumber men on the lower rungs of the career ladder, less than three per cent are in top management jobs. A large proportion are unable to break through the so-called glass ceiling – an invisible barrier of male prejudices and networks. The survey also revealed that women were fighting a losing battle against sexual discrimination. “Almost universally, women have failed to reach leading positions in major corporations and private sector organisations irrespective of their abilities,” said the survey’s author Linda Wirth. “The higher the position, the more glaring the gender gap. “
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